• Oded Bar-Or


Folgende vier Gesichtspunkte können zur Bedeutung der körperlichen Belastung für Gesundheit und Wohlbefinden eines asthmakranken Kindes angeführt werden:
  1. 1.

    Akute Belastung kann eine Bronchokonstriktion bzw. einen Asthmaanfall auslösen.

  2. 2.

    Einem auf Dauer durchgeführten Training kommt ein therapeutischer Wert zu.

  3. 3.

    Der Belastungstest ist ein wichtiges diagnostisches Hilfsmittel.

  4. 4.

    Eine Reihe von Untersuchungen wurde unter Zuhilfenahme von Belastungstests durchgeführt, um die Pathophysiologic des Asthmas weiter abzuklaren.



Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    American Academy of Pediatrics (Committee on Children with Handicaps). The asthmatic child and his participation in sports and physical education. Pediatrics 45: 150–151, 1970.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anderson SD: Physiological aspects of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. PhD Thesis, University of London, 1972.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anderson SD: Exercise-induced asthma: current views. Patient Management 6: 43–55, 1982.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anderson SD, Connolly NM, Godfrey S: Comparison of bronchoconstriction induced by cycling and running. Thorax 26: 396–401, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anderson SD, Pojer R, Smith ID, Temple D: Exercise-related changes in plasma levels of 15-keto-13, 14-dihydro-prostaglandin F2 and noradrenaline in asthmatic and normal subjects. Scand J Resp Dis 57: 41–48, 1976.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Anderson SD, Rozea PJ, Dolton R, Lindsay DA: Inhaled and oral bronchodilator therapy in exercise-induced asthma. Aust NZ J Med 5: 544–550, 1975.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Anderson SD, Schoeffel RE, Follet R, et al: Sensitivity to heat and water loss at rest and during exercise in asthmatic patients. Eur J Respir Dis 63, 93–105, 1982.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Anderson S, Seale JP, Ferris L, Schoeffel R, Lindsay DA: An evaluation of pharmacotherapy for exercise-induced asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol 64: 612–614, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Astin TW, Penman RWB: Airway obstruction due to hypoxemia in patients with chronic lung disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 95: 567–575, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Backman A: Physiological and psychological aspects of the training of asthmatic children. In: Oseid S (ed.) The Asthmatic in Play and Sports. Pitman, London, in press.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Badiei B, Faciane J, Sly RM: Effect of theophylline, ephedrine and their combination upon exercise-induced airway obstruction. Ann Allergy 35: 32–35, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bar-Or O: Climate and the exercising child—a review. Int J Sports Med 1: 53–65, 1980.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bar-Or O: Climatic conditions and their effect on exercise-induced asthma. In: Oseid S (ed.) The Asthmatic Child in Play and Sport. Pitman, London, in press.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bar-Or, O, Neuman I, Dotan R: Effects of dry and humid climates on exercise-induced asthma in children and preadolescents. J Allergy Clin Immunol 60: 163–168, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bar-Yishay E, Gur I, Inbar O,: Differences between swimming and running as stimuli for exercise-induced asthma. Eur J Appl Physiol, in press.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bevegard S, Eriksson BO, Graff-Lonnevig V, et al: Circulatory and respiratory dimensions and functional capacity in boys aged 8 to 13 years with bronchial asthma. Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl 217: 86–89, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bevegard S, Eriksson BO, Graff-Lonnevig V, et al: Respiratory function, cardiovascular dimensions and work capacity in boys with bronchial asthma. Acta Paediatr Scand 65: 289–296, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bianco S, Griffin JP, Kamburoff PL, Prime FJ: Prevention of exerciseinduced asthma by indoramin. Br Med J 4: 18–20, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bierman CW, Pierson WE: Summary—Symposium on exercise and asthma. Pediatrics 56: 950–952, 1975.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bierman CW, Shapiro GG, Pierson WE, Dorsett CS: Acute and chronic theophylline therapy in exercise-induced bronchospasm. Pediatrics 60: 845–849, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bierman CW, Shapiro GG, Pierson WE, Cho YW: Exercise-induced bronchospasm in asthmatic children as a dose-response model for theophylline. Int J Clin Pharmacol Biopharm 16: 245–248, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Blackhall MI: Ventilatory function in subjects with childhood asthma who have become symptom free. Arch Dis Child 45: 363–366, 1970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Burr ML, Eldridge BA, Borysiewicz LK: Peak expiratory flow rates before and after exercise in schoolchildren. Arch Dis Child 49: 923–926, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bury JD: Climate and chest disorders (letter). Br Med J 4: 613, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cerny FJ, Pullano TP, Cropp GJA: Cardiorespiratory adaptations to exercise in cystic fibrosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 126: 217–220, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cerrina J, Denjean A, Alexandre G, et al: Inhibition of exercise-induced asthma by a calcium antagonist, nifedipine1-3. Am Rev Respir Dis 123: 156–160, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Chang-Yeung MMW, Vyas MN, Grybowski S: Exercise-induced asthma. Am Rev Respir Dis 104: 915–923, 1971.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chen WY, Horton DJ: Heat and water loss from the airways and exerciseinduced asthma. Respiration 34: 305–313, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chen WY, Horton DJ: Airways obstruction in asthmatics induced by body cooling. Scand J Respir Dis 59: 13–20, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chipps BE, Alderson PO, Roland J-MA, et al: Non-invasive evaluation of ventricular function in cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr 95: 379–384, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cropp GJA: The exercise bronchoprovocation test: standardization of procedures and evaluation of response. J Allergy Clin Immunol 64:627– 633, 1979.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cropp GJ, Pullano TP, Cerny FJ, Nathanson IT: Exercise tolerance and cardiorespiratory adjustments at peak work capacity in cystic fibrosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 126: 211–216, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dahl R, Henriksen JM: Effect of oral and inhaled sodium cromoglycate in exercise-induced asthma. Allergy 35: 363–365, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Darby CW, Davidson AG, Desai ID: Muscular performance in cystic fibrosis patients and its relation to vitamin E. Arch Dis Child 48: 72–75, 1973.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Day G, Mearns MB: Bronchial lability in cystic fibrosis. Arch Dis Child 48: 355–359, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Deal EC Jr, McFadden ERJr, Ingram RHJr, Jaeger JJ: Effects of atropine on the potentiation of exercise-induced bronchospasm by cold air. J Appl Physiol: Respir Environ Exercise Physiol 45: 238–243, 1978.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Deal EC Jr, McFadden ERJr, Ingram RH Jr, Jaeger JJ: Hyperpnea and heat flux: initial reaction sequence in exercise-induced asthma. J Appl Physiol: Respir Environ Exercise Physiol 46: 476–483, 1979.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Deal EC Jr, McFadden ERJr, Ingram RH Jr, Jaeger JJ: Esophageal temperature during exercise in asthmatic and non-asthmatic subjects. J Appl Physiol: Respir Environ Exercise Physiol 46: 484–490, 1979.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Deal EC Jr, McFadden ER Jr, Ingram RH Jr,: Role of respiratory heat exchange in production of exercise-induced asthma. J Appl Physiol: Respir Environ Exercise Physiol 46: 467–475, 1979.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Derrick EH: The seasonal variation of asthma in Brisbane: its relation to temperature and humidity. Int J Biometeorol 9: 239–251, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Edmunds AT, Tooley M, Godfrey S: The refractory period after EIA: its duration and relation to the severity of exercise. Am Rev Respir Dis 117: 247–254, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Eggleston PA: Exercise-induced asthma in children with intrinsic and extrinsic asthma. Pediatrics 56: 856–859, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Eggleston PA: Laboratory evaluation of exercise-induced asthma methodologic considerations. J Allergy Clin Immunol 64: 604–608, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Eggleston PA, Guerrant JL: A standardized method of evaluating exercise- induced asthma. J Allerg Clin Immunol 58: 414–425, 1976.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Eggleston PA, Rosenthal RR, Anderson SA, et al: Guidelines for the methodology of exercise challenge testing of asthmatics (Study Group on Exercise Challenge, Broncho-Provocation Committee, American Academy on Allergy). J Allergy Clin Immunol 64: 642–645, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Engstrom I, Karlberg P, Kraepelien S, Wengler G: Respiratory studies in children. VIII. Respiratory adaptation during exercise tolerance test with special reference to mechanical properties of the lungs in asthmatic and healthy children. Acta Paediatr 49: 850–858, 1960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Fanta CH, McFadden ERJr, Ingram RHJr: Effects of cromolyn sodium on the response to respiratory heat loss in normal subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis 123: 161–164, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Feisal KA, Fuleihan FJD: Pulmonary gas exchange during exercise in young asthmatic patients. Thorax 34: 393–396, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Fisher HK, Hatton P, Buxton RStJ, Nudel JA: Resistance to breathing during exercise-induced asthma attacks. Am Rev Respir Dis 101: 885–896, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Fitch KD: Exercise-induced asthma and competitive athletics. Pediatrics 56: 942–943, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Fitch K: Swimming medicine and asthma. In: Eriksson B, Furberg B (eds.) Swimming Medicine IV. University Park Press, Baltimore, 1978, pp. 16–31.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fitch KD, Godfrey S: Asthma and athletic performance. JAMA 236: 152–157, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fitch KD, Morton AR: Specificity of exercise in exercise-induced asthma. Br Med J 4: 577–581, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Fitch KD, Morton AR, Blanksby BA: Effects of swimming training on children with asthma. Arch Dis Child 51: 190–194, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Fontana VJ, Fost A, Rappaport I: Effects of rapid change in humidity on pulmonary function studies in normal and asthmatic children in a controlled environment. J Allergy 43: 16–21, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Francis PWJ, Krastins IRB, Levison H: Oral and inhaled salbutamol in the prevention of exercise-induced bronchospasm. Pediatrics 66: 103–108, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Friedman M, Kovitz KL, Miller SD, et al: Hemodynamics in teenagers and asthmatic children during exercise. J Appl Physiol: Respir Environ Exercise Physiol 46: 293–297, 1979.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Gaultier CL, Buvry A, Boule Y, et al: Epreuve d’effort chez 16 enfants atteints d’une maladie interstitielle. Bull Eur Physiopath Resp 15: 409–411, 1979.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gerhard H, Schachter EN: Exercise-induced asthma. Postgrad Med 67: 91–102, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Germann K, Orenstein D, Horowitz J: Changes in oxygenation during exercise in cystic fibrosis (abstract). Med Sci Sports Exercise 12: 105, 1980.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Geubelle F, Dechange J, Louis I, Beyer M: Respiratory function, energetic metabolism and work capacity in boys with asthma syndrome. Acta Paediatr Belg 31: 79–86, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Geubelle F, Ernould C, Jovanovich M: Working capacity and physical training in asthmatic children, at 1800 m altitude. Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl 217: 93–98, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Gibson GJ, Greenacre JK, Konig P, et al: Use of exercise challenge to investigate possible tolerance to beta-adrenoreceptor stimulation in asthma. Br J Dis Chest 72: 199–206, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Godfrey S: Exercise Testing in Children. Applications in Health and Disease. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1974.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Godfrey S: Exercise-induced bronchial lability in wheezy children and their families. Pediatrics 56: 851–855, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Godfrey S: Exercise-induced asthma. Review article. Allergy 33: 229–237, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Godfrey S, Konig P: Inhibition of exercise-induced asthma by different pharmacological pathways. Thorax 31: 137–143, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Godfrey S, Mearns M: Pulmonary function and response to exercise in cystic fibrosis. Arch Dis Child 46: 144–151, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Godfrey S, Silverman M: Demonstration by placebo response in asthma by means of exercise testing. J Psychosom Res 17: 293–297, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Godfrey S, Silverman M, Anderson S: The use of treadmill for assessing EIA and the effect of varying the severity and duration of exercise. Pediatrics 56: 893–899, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Graff-Lonnevig V: Cardio-respiratory function, aerobic capacity and effect of physical activity in asthmatic boys. MD Thesis, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, 1978.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Graff-Lonnevig V, Bevegard S, Eriksson BO: Cardiac output and blood pressure at rest and during exercise in boys with bronchial asthma. Scand J Respir Dis 60: 36–43, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Graff-Lonnevig V, Bevegard S, Eriksson BO, et al: Two years’ follow-up of asthmatic boys participating in a physical activity program. Acta Paediatr Scand 69: 347–352, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Greenberg L, Field F, Reed JI, Erhardt CL: Asthma and temperature change. Arch Environ Health 8: 642–647, 1964.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Greenberg L, Field F, Reed JI, Erhardt CL: Asthma and temperature change. II—1964 and 1965 epidemiological studies of emergency clinic visits for asthma in three large New York City Hospitals. Arch Environ Health 12: 561–563, 1966.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Griffiths J, Leung FY, Grzybowski, Chan-Yeung MMW: Sequential estimation of plasma catecholamines in exercise-induced asthma. Chest 62:527– 533, 1972.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Grilliat JP, Viniaker H, Vaillandet M, Ohlsson MG: Readaptation des asthmatiques a l’effort. Rev Fr Mai Respir 5: 431–440, 1977.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Henriksen JM, Dahl R, Lundquist GR: Influence of relative humidity and repeated exercise on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Allergy 36: 463–470, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Henriksen JM, Nielsen TT: Effects of physical training on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. In: Oseid S (ed.) The Asthmatic Child in Play and Sports. Pitman, London, in press.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Herxheimer H: Hyperventilation asthma. Lancet 1: 83–87, 1946.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Horton DJ, Chen WY: Effects of breathing warm humidified air on bronchoconstriction induced by body cooling and by inhalation of metacholine. Chest 75: 24–28, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hyde JS, Swarts CL: Effect of an exercise program on the perennially asthmatic child. Am J Dis Child 116: 383–396, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Inbar O, Alvarez DX, Lyons HA: Exercise-induced asthma—a comparison between two modes of exercise stress. Eur J Respir Dis 62: 160–167, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Inbar O, Dotan R, Dlin RA, et al: Breathing dry or humid air and exerciseinduced asthma during swimming. Eur J Appl Physiol 44: 43–50, 1980.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    James L, Faciane J, Sly RM: Effect of treadmill exercise on asthmatic children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 57: 408–416, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Johnson JD: Statistical considerations in studies of exercise-induced bronchospasm. J Allergy Clin Immunol 64: 634–641, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Jones RHT, Jones RS: Ventilatory capacity in young adults with a history of asthma in childhood. Br Med J 2: 976–978, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Jones RS: Assessment of respiratory function in the asthmatic child. Br Med J 2: 972–975, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Jones RS, Wharton MJ, Buston MH: The place of physical exercise and bronchodilator drugs in the assessment of the asthmatic child. Arch Dis Child 38: 539–545, 1963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Josenhans WT, Melville GN, Ulmer WT: The effect of facial cold stimulation on airway conductance in man. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 47: 453–457, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Kattan M, Keens TG, Mellis CM, Levison H: The response to exercise in normal and asthmatic children. J Pediatr 92: 718–721, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Katz RM, Siegel SC, Rachelefsky GS: Blood gas in exercise-induced bronchospasm: a review. Pediatrics 56[Suppl.]: 880–882, 1975.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Kawabori I, Pierson WE, Conquest LL, Bierman DW: Incidence of exercise- induced asthma in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 58: 447–455, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Keens TG, Krastins IRB, Wannamaker EM, et al: Ventilatory muscle endurance training in normal subjects and patients with cystic fibrosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 116: 853–860, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kilham H, Tooley M, Silverman M: Running, walking and hyperventilation causing asthma in children. Thorax 34: 582–586, 1979PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Konig P: Clinical implications of bronchial lability in relation to asthma. PhD Thesis, University of London, 1974.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Konig P, Godfrey S: Exercise-induced bronchial lability and atopic status of families of infants with wheezy bronchitis. Arch Dis Child 48: 942–946, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Konig P, Godfrey S: Exercise-induced bronchial lability in monozygotic (identical) and dizygotic (non-identical) twins. J Allergy Clin Immunol 54: 280–287, 1974.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Leisti S, Finnila M-J, Kiura E: Effects of physical training on hormonal responses to exercise in asthmatic children. Arch Dis Child 54: 524–528, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Malo JL, Filiatrault S, Martin RR: Combined effects of exercise and exposure to outside cold air on lung functions of asthmatics. Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 16: 623–635, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Mangla PK, Menon MPS: Effect of nasal and oral breathing on exerciseinduced asthma. Clin Allergy 11: 433–439, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Mansell A, Dubrawsky C, Levison H, et al: Lung elastic recoil in cystic fibrosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 109: 190–197, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Mansfield L, McDonnell J, Morgan W, Souhrada JF: Airway response in asthmatic children during and after exercise. Respiration 38: 135–143, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    McFadden ER Jr, Ingram RHJr: Exercise-induced asthma. Observations on the initiating stimulus. N Engl J Med 301: 763–769, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    McFadden ERJr, Ingram RHJr, Haynes RL, Wellman JJ: Predominant site of flow limitation and mechanisms of postexertional asthma. J Appl Physiol: Respir Environ Exercise Physiol 42: 746–752, 1977.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    McNally JF Jr, Enright P, Souhrada JF: The role of the oropharynx in exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (abstract). Am Rev Respir Dis 117[Suppl.]: 372, 1978.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    McNeill RS, Nairn JR, Millar JS, Ingram CG: Exercise-induced asthma. QJ Med 35: 55–67, 1966.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Mellis CM, Levison H: Bronchial reactivity in cystic fibrosis. Pediatrics 61: 446–450, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Millar JS, Nairn JR, Unkles RD, McNeill RS: Cold air and ventilator function. Br J Dis Chest 59: 23–27, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Miller GJ, Davies BH, Cole TJ, Seaton H: Comparison of the bronchial response to running and cycling in asthma using an improved definition of the response to work. Thorax 30: 306–311, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Miller LC, Miller WW, Johnson RL Jr, Schneider M: The effect of physical training on exercise-induced asthma (abstract). Clin Res 24: 588A, 1976.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Morton AR, Fitch KD, Davis T: The effect of “warm-up” on exerciseinduced asthma. Ann Allergy 42: 257–260, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Morton AR, Turner KJ, Fitch KD: Protection from exercise-induced asthma by pre-exercise cromolyn sodium and its relationship to serum IgE levels. Ann Allergy 31: 265–271, 1973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    O’Brodovich HM, Moser MM, Lee L: Familial lymphoid interstitial pneumonia: a long-term follow-up. Pediatrics 65: 523–528, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Oldenburg FA, Dolovich MB, Montgomery JM, Newhouse MT: Effects of postural drainage, exercise and cough on mucus clearance in chronic bronchitis. Am Rev Respir Dis 120: 739–745, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Orenstein DM, Franklin BA, Doershuk CF, et al: Exercise conditioning and cardiopulmonary fitness in cystic fibrosis. The effects of a three-month supervised running program. Chest 80: 392–398, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Orenstein DM, Henks KG, Cerny FJ: Exercise and cystic fibrosis. Physican Sportsmed 11: 57–63, 1983.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Oseid S: Exercise-induced asthma: A review. In: Berg K, Eriksson BO (eds.) Children and Exercise IX. University Park Press, Baltimore, 1980, pp. 277–288.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Oseid S, Haaland K: Exercise studies on asthmatic children before and after regular physical training. In: Eriksson B, Furberg B (eds.) Swimming Medicine IV. University Park Press, Baltimore, 1978, pp. 32–41.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Oseid S, Kendall M, Larsen RB, Selbekk R: Physical activity programs for children with exercise-induced asthma. In: Eriksson B, Furberg B (eds.) Swimming Medicine IV. University Park Press, Baltimore, 1978, pp. 42–51.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Patel KR: The effect of calcium antagonist, nifedipine, in exercise-induced asthma. Clin Allergy 5: 429–432, 1981.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Pearson RB: The effect of exercise in asthma. Acta Allergol (Kbh) 5:310– 311, 1952.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Petersen KH, McElhenney TR: Effects of a physical fitness program upon asthmatic boys. Pediatrics 35: 295–299, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Pierson WE, Bierman CW: Free running test for exercise-induced bronchospasm. Pediatrics 56 [Suppl.]: 890–892, 1975.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Pollock J, Kiechel F, Cooper D, Weinberger M: Relationship of serum theophylline concentration to inhibition of exercise-induced bronchospasm and comparison with cromolyn. Pediatrics 60: 840–844, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Proctor DF: The upper airways. I. Nasal physiology and defense of the lungs. Am Rev Respir Dis 115: 97–129, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Proctor DF, Andersen I, Lundqvist GR: Human nasal mucosal function at controlled temperatures. Respir Physiol 30: 109–124, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Ryland D, Reid L: The pulmonary circulation in cystic fibrosis. Thorax 30: 285–292, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Schachter EN, Lach E, Lee M: The protective effect of a cold weather mask on exercise-induced asthma. Ann Allergy 46: 12–16, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Scherr MS, Frankel L: Physical conditioning program for asthmatic children. JAMA 168: 1996–2000, 1958.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Schnall RP, Landau LI, Phelan PD: The use of short periods of exercise in the prevention and reversal of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. In: Oseid S (ed.) The Asthmatic Child in Play and Sports. Pitman, London, in press.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Schoeffel RE, Anderson SD, Seale JP: The protective effect and duration of action of metaproterenol aerosol on exercise-induced asthma. Ann Allergy 46: 273–275, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Shapiro GG, Pierson WE, Furukawa CT, Bierman CW: A comparison of the effectiveness of free-running and treadmill exercise for assessing exercise- induced bronchospasm in clinical practice. J Allergy Clin Immunol 64: 609–611, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Shephard RJ: Exercise-induced bronchospasm—a review. Med Sci Sports 9: 1–10, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Shephard RJ: Physical Activity and Growth. Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago, 1982.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Shturman-Ellstein R, Zeballos RJ, Buckley JM, Souhrada JF: The beneficial effect of nasal breathing on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Am Rev Respir Dis 118: 65–73, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Silverman M, Anderson SD: Standardization of exercise tests in asthmatic children. Arch Dis Child 47: 882–889, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Silverman M, Andrea T: Time course of effect of disodium cromoglycate on exercise-induced asthma. Arch Dis Child 47: 419–422, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Simonsson BG, Jacobs FM, Nadel J A: Role of autonomic nervous system and the cough reflex in the increased responsiveness of airways in patients with obstructive airway disease. J Clin Invest 46: 1812–1818, 1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Sims DG, Downham MAPS, Gardner PS, et al: Study of 8-year-old children with a history of respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in infancy. Br Med J 1: 11–14, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Sly RM: Exercise-related changes in airway obstruction: Frequency and clinical correlates in asthmatic children. Ann Allergy 28: 1–16, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Sly RM: Effect of cromolyn sodium on exercise-induced airway obstruction in asthmatic children. Ann Allergy 29: 362–366, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Sly RM: Effect of /3-adrenoreceptor stimulants on exercise-induced asthma. Pediatrics 56[Suppl.]: 910–915, 1975.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Sprenkle AC, Van Arsdel PP, Bierman CW: New drug evaluation using exercise-induced bronchospasm. Pediatrics 56[Suppl.]: 937–939, 1975.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Stalcup SA, Mellins RB: Mechanical forces producing pulmonary edema in acute asthma. N Engl J Med 297: 529–595, 1977.Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Steer RG: Asthma and the weather (letter). Med J Aust 7: 38, 1976.Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Strauss RH, Haynes RL, Ingram RH Jr, McFadden ER Jr: Comparison of arm vs leg work in induction of acute episodes of asthma. J Appl Physiol 42: 565–570, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Strauss RH, McFadden ER Jr, Ingram RH Jr, et al: Influence of heat and humidity on the airway obstruction induced by exercise in asthma. J Clin Invest 61: 433–440, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Strauss RH, McFadden ERJr, Ingram RH Jr, Jaeger JJ: Enhancement of exercise-induced asthma by cold air. N Engl J Med 297: 743–747, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Strunk RC, Kelly LJ: The recreation therapy programme at National Jewish Hospital/National Asthma Center. In: Oseid S (ed.) The Asthmatic Child in Play and Sport. Pitman, London, in press.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Swann IL: Improvement in asthmatic children as a result of physical training. In: Oseid S (ed.) The Asthmatic Child in Play and Sport. Pitman, London, in press.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Tower J: Office testing for exercise-induced asthma. Alaska Med 20:70– 72, 1978.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Tromp SW, Bouma J: Effect of weather on asthmatic children in the eastern part of the Netherlands. Int J Biometeorol 9: 233–238, 1965.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Valimaki I, Liuko L, Peltonen T, Hirvonen L: Physical working capacities of children with pulmonary tuberculosis. Scand J Respir Dis 49: 260–263, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Vassallo CL, Gee JBL, Domm BM: Exercise-induced asthma. Observations regarding hypocapnia and acidosis. Ann Rev Respir Dis 105: 42–49, 1972.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Vavra J, Macek M, Mrzena B, Spicak V: Intensive physical training in children with bronchial asthma. Acta Paediatr Scand Suppl 217: 90–92, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Vavra J, Macek M, Spicak V: Working capacity of asthmatic children (in French). Rev Pediatr 5: 3–7, 1969.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Verma S, Hyde JS: Physical education programs and exercise-induced asthma. Clin Pediatr 15: 697–699, 1976.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Weinstein RE, Anderson JA, Kvale P, Sweet LC: Effects of humidification on exercise-induced asthma (EIA) (abstract). J Allergy Clin Immunol 57: 250–251, 1976.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Wilbourn K: The lung distance runner. Runner’s World 13: 62–65, 1978.Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Wilson BA, Evans JN: Standardization of work intensity for evaluation of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Eur J Appl Physiol 47: 289–294, 1981.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Wolkove N, Kreisman H, Frank H, Gent M: The effect of ipratropium on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Ann Allergy 47: 311–315, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Yeung R, Nolan GM, Levison H: Comparison of the effects of inhaled SCH 1000 and Fenoterol on exercise-induced bronchospasm in children. Pediatrics 66: 109–114, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Zach M, Oberwaldner B, Hausler F: Cystic fibrosis; physical exercise vs. chest physiotherapy. Arch Dis Child 57: 587–589, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Zach MS, Purrer B, Oberwalder B: Effect of swimming on forced expiration and sputum clearance in cystic fibrosis. Lancet 11: 1201–1203, 1981.Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Zambie MF, Gupta S, Lemen RJ, et al: Relationships between response to exercise and allergy in patients with cystic fibrosis. Ann Allergy 42:290–294, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Zeballos RJ, Shturman-Ellstein R, McNally JF Jr, et al: The role of hyperventilation in exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Am Rev Respir Dis 118: 877–884, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Zelkowitz PS, Giammona ST: Effects of gravity and exercise on the pulmonary diffusing capacity in children with cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr 74:393–398, 1969.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oded Bar-Or
    • 1
  1. 1.Chedoke Division, Evel 4Chedoke-Mc Master-HospitalHamiltonKanada

Personalised recommendations