Mesenchymal Tumor Markers: Special Proteins and Enzymes

  • H. F. Otto
  • R. Berndt
  • K. Schwechheimer
  • P. Möller
Part of the Current Topics in Pathology book series (CT PATHOLOGY, volume 77)


The differential diagnosis of sarcomas is difficult. Different sarcomas can exhibit almost identical histological features when examined with light microscopic techniques. The visualization of structural and functional proteins in the tumor cells, using immunohistochemical methods, is an important factor in establishing a precise diagnosis. However, it is imperative to be familiar with the reaction range of the antibodies of the different tumors. The literature does not provide uniform findings with regard to the reaction range of “histiocytic” markers and thus far, there are no systematic investigations for ferritin and transferrin when applied to soft tissue tumors. This is why, in addition to the literature, we rely on our investigations carried out on 73 soft tissue sarcomas and 16 benign soft tissue lesions. Antisera have been used against the following proteins: desmin (Euro Diagnostics), myoglobin, lysozyme, ax-antitrypsin, ax-antichymotrypsin, ferritin, transferrin, factor VHI-related antigen, and S-100 protein (all from Dako). Myosin was identified on frozen sections of selected tumors with monoclonal antibodies.


Soft Tissue Tumor Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma Granular Cell Tumor Epithelioid Sarcoma Pathol Anat 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alguacil-Garcia A, Unni KK, Goellner JN (1978) Malignant fibrous histiocytoma: An ultrastructural study of six cases. Am J Clin Pathol 69: 121–129Google Scholar
  2. Alper CA, Raifm D, Awdeh ZL, Petersen BH, Taylor PD, Starzl TE (1980) Studies of hepatic synthesis in vivo of plasma proteins, including orosomucoid, transferrin, α1-antitrypsin, C 8, and factor B. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 16: 84–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Altmannsberger M, Osborn M, Treuner J, Hölscher A, Weber K, Schauer A (1982) Diagnosis of human childhood rhabdomyosarcoma by antibodies to desmin, the structural protein of muscle specific intermediate filaments. Virchows Arch (Cell Pathol) 39: 203–215Google Scholar
  4. Altmannsberger M, Weber K, Droste R, Osborn M (1985) Desmin is a specific marker for rhabdomyosarcomas of human and rat origin. Am J Pathol 118: 85–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Angervall L, Kindblom LG, Haglid K (1984) Dermal nerve sheath myxoma. A light and electron microscopic, histochemical and immunohistochemical study. Cancer 53: 1752–1759Google Scholar
  6. Armin A, Connelly E, Rowden G (1983) An immunoperoxidase investigation of S-100 protein in granular cell myoblastomas: evidence for Schwann cell derivation. Am J Clin Pathol 79: 37–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Asofsky R, Thorbecke GJ (1961) Sites of formation of immuneglobulins and of a component of C3.II. Production of immunoelectrophoretically identified serum proteins by human and monkey tissues in vitro. J Exp Med 114: 471–487Google Scholar
  8. Baudier J, Briving C, Deinum J, Haglid K, Sorskog L, Wallin M (1982) Effect of S-100 proteins and calmodulin on Ca+ + -induced assembly and disassembly of brain microtubule proteins in vitro. FEBS Lett 147: 165–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Beatty K, Bieth J, Travis J (1980) Kinetics of association of serine proteases with native and oxidized α1-proteinase inhibitor and α1-antichymotrypsin. J Biol Chem 255: 3931–3934PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Beckstead JH, Wood GS, Fletcher V (1985) Evidence of the origin of Kaposi’s sarcoma from lymphatic endothelium. Am J Pathol 119: 294–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Blanchetot A, Wilson V, Wood D, Jeffreys AJ (1983) The seal myoglobin gene: an unusually long globin gene. Nature 301: 732–734PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bock E (1978) Nervous system specific proteins. J Neurochem 30: 7–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Braunhut SJ, Blanc WA, Ramanarayanan M, Marboe C, Mesa-Tejada R (1984) Immunocytochemical localization of lysozyme and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin in the human placenta: an attempt to characterize the Hofbauer cell. J Histochem Cytochem 32: 1204–1210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Breit NS, Robinson JP, Luckhurst E, Clark P, Penny R (1982) Immunoregulation by -antitrypsin. J Clin Lab Immunol 7: 127–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Breit NS, Robinson JP, Penny R (1983) The effect of α1-antitrypsin on phagocyte function. J Clin Lab Immunol 10: 147–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Briggs RS, Perillie PE, Finch SC (1966) Lysozyme in bone marrow and peripheral blood cells. J Histochem Cytochem 14: 167–170PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Brooks JJ (1982) Immunohistochemistry of soft tissue tumors. Myoglobin as a tumor marker for rhabdomyosarcoma. Cancer 50: 1757–1763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Brooks JP, Pascal RR (1984) Malignant giant cell tumor of bone: ultrastructural and immunohistologic evidence of histiocytic origin. Hum Pathol 15: 1098–1100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Bullock S, Bomford A, Williams R (1980) A biochemical comparison of normal human liver and hepatocellular carcinoma ferritins. Biochem J 185: 639–645PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bures JC, Barnes L, Mecer D (1981) A comparative study of smooth muscle tumors utilizing light and electron microscopy, immunocytochemical staining and enzymatic assay. Cancer 48: 2420–2426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Burgdorf WHC, Duray P, Rosai J (1981a) Immunohistochemical identification of lysozyme in cutaneous lesions of alleged histocytic nature. Am J Clin Pathol 75: 162–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Burgdorf WHC, Mukai K, Rosai J (1981b) Immunohistochemical identification of factor VHI-related antigen in endothelial cells of cutaneous lesions of alleged vascular nature. Am J Clin Pathol 75: 167–171Google Scholar
  23. Carrell RW, Jeppson JO, Laureil CB, Brennan SO, Owen MC, Vaughan L, Ross Boswell D (1982) Structure and variation of human α1-antitrypsin. Nature 2986: 329–334Google Scholar
  24. Cocchia D, Michetti F (1981) S-100 antigen in satellite cells of the adrenal medulla and the superior cervical ganglion of the rat. An immunochemical and immunocytochemical study. Cell Tissue Res 215: 103–112Google Scholar
  25. Cocchia D, Lauriola L, Stolfî VM, Tallini G, Michetti F (1983) S-100 antigen labels neoplastic cells in liposarcoma and cartilaginous tumors. Virchows Arch (Pathol Anat) 402: 139–145Google Scholar
  26. Cohen C, Berson SD, Shulman G, Budgeon LR (1984a) Immunohistochemical ferritin in hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer 53: 1931–1935PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cohen C, Shulman G, Budgeon LR (1984b) Immunohistochemical ferritin in testicular seminoma. Cancer 54: 2190–2194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Corson JM, Pinkus GS (1981) Intracellular myoglobin — a specific marker for skeletal muscle differentiation in soft tissue sarcomas. Am J Pathol 103: 384–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Daimaru Y, Hashimoto H, Enjoji M (1984) Malignant “Triton” tumors: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of nine cases. Hum Pathol 15: 768–778PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Daimaru Y, Hashimoto H, Enjoji M (1985) Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (malignant schwannomas). An immunohistochemical study of 29 cases. Am J Surg Pathol 9: 434–444PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Darnell J, Lodish H, Baltimore D (eds) (1986) Molecular cell biology. Scientific American Books, New York, pp 839–852Google Scholar
  32. De Jong ASH, Van Raamsdonk W, Van Vark M, Voûte PA, Albus-Lutter CE (1984) Myosin and myoglobin as tumor markers in the diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma. Am J Surg Pathol 8: 521–528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Denk H, Krepler R, Artlieb U, Gabbiani G, Rungger-Brándle E, Leoncini P, Franke WW (1983) Proteins of intermediate filaments. An immunohistochemical and biochemical approach to the classification of soft tissue tumors. Am J Pathol 110: 193–208Google Scholar
  34. Dickinson DW, Hart MN, Menezes A, Cancilla PA (1983) Medulloblastoma with glial and rhabdo- myoblastomaic differentiation. A myoglobin and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 42: 639–647Google Scholar
  35. Donato R (1983) Effect of S-100 protein on assembly of brain microtubule proteins in vitro. FEBS Lett 162: 310–313PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Donato R (1984 a) Chlorpromazine inhibits the calcium-mediated effect of S-100 protein(s) on assembled brain microtubule proteins, but not those on microtubule protein assembly. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 122: 983–990Google Scholar
  37. Donato R (1984 b) Mechanism of action of S-100 protein(s) on brain microtubule protein assembly. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 124: 850–856PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Donato R, Isobe T, Okuyama T (1985) S-100 proteins and microtubules: analysis of the effects of rat brain S-100b and ox brain S-100ao, S-100a and S-100b on microtubule assembly — disassembly. FEBS Lett 186: 65–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Donner L, de Lanerolle P, Costa J (1983) Immunoreactivity of paraffin-embedded normal tissue and mesenchymal tumors for smooth muscle myosin. Am J Clin Pathol 80: 677–681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Drenckhahn D, Steffans R, Groeschel-Steward U (1980) Immunocytochemical localization of myosin in the brush border region of the intestinal epithelium. Cell Tissue Res 205: 163–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Drysdale J (1979) Ferritin in cancer: biochemical perspectives. In: Carcinoembryonic proteins: Chemistry, biology, clinical application, vol I, pp 557–588Google Scholar
  42. Endo T, Hidaka H (1983) Effect of S-100 protein on microtubule assembly - disassembly. FEBS Lett 161: 235–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Eusebi V, Bondi A, Rosai J (1984) Immunohistochemical localization of myoglobin in non- muscular cells. Am J Surg Pathol 8: 51–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Eusebi V, Ceccarelli C, Gorza L, Schiaffino S, Bussolati G (1986) Immunocytochemistry of rhabda-myosarcoma. The use of four different markers. Am J Surg Pathol 10: 293–299Google Scholar
  45. Feigl W, Denk H, Davidovits A, Holzner JH (1976) Blood group isoantigens in human benign and malignant tumors. Virchows Arch (Pathol Anat) 370: 323–332Google Scholar
  46. Ferri GL, Probert L, Cocchia D, Michetti F, Marangos PJ, Polak JM (1982) Evidence for the presence of S-100 protein in the glial component of the human enteric nervous system. Nature 297: 409–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Flanagan P, Lionetti F (1955) Lysozyme distribution in blood. Blood 10: 497–501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Fleming A (1922) On a remarkable bacteriolytic element found in tissues and secretions. Proc R Soc Lond (Biol) 93: 306–317Google Scholar
  49. Fletcher CD, Evans BJ, MacArtney JC, Smith N, Wilson Jones E, McKee PH (1985) Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: A clinicopathological and immunohistochemical study with a review of the literature. Histopathol 9: 921–938Google Scholar
  50. Flotte TJ, Hatcher VA, Friedman-Kien AE (1984) Factor VHI-related antigen in Kaposi’s sarcoma in young homosexual men. Arch Dermatol 120: 180–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Fu Y-S, Gabbiani G, Kaye GI, Lattes R (1975) Malignant soft tissue tumors of probable histiocytic origin (malignant fibrous histiocytomas): General considerations and electron microscopic and tissue culture studies. Cancer 35: 176–198Google Scholar
  52. Gabbiani G, Kapanci Y, Barazzone P, Franke WW (1981) Immunochemical identification of intermediate-sized filaments in human neoplastic cells: A diagnostic aid for the surgical pathologist. Am J Pathol 104: 206–216Google Scholar
  53. Gaynor R, Irie R, Morton D, Herschman HR (1980) S-100 protein is present in cultured human malignant melanomas. Nature 286: 400–401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Gaynor R, Irie R, Morton D, Herschman HR, Jones P, Cochran A (1981) S-100 protein: a marker for human malignant melanomas. Lancet 18: 869–871Google Scholar
  55. Giangaspero F, Zanetti G, Mancini A, Rosito P (1981) Sarcomatous variant of Wilms’ tumor. A light microscopical and immunohistochemical study of four cases. Tumori 67:367-373 Giddings JC (1982) The analysis of factor VIII. Med Lab Sci 39: 339–343Google Scholar
  56. Guarda LG, Silva EG, Ordonez NG, Smith JL (1981) Factor VIII in Kaposi’s sarcoma. Am J Clin Pathol 76: 197–200PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Gupta PK, Frost JK, Geddes S, Aracil B, Davidovski F (1979) Morphological identification of ax-antitrypsin in pulmonary macrophages. Hum Pathol 10: 345–347PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Haglid K, Carlsson CA, Stavrou D (1973) An immunological study of human brain tumors concerning the brain specific proteins S-100 and 14.3.2. Acta Neuropathol (Berl) 24: 187–196Google Scholar
  59. Hashimoto H, Daimaru Y, Enjoji M (1984) S-100 protein distribution in liposarcoma. An immuno- peroxidase study with special reference to the distinction of liposarcoma from myxoid malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Virchows Arch (Pathol Anat) 405: 1–10Google Scholar
  60. Hayashi Y, Aoki Y, Eto R, Tokuoka S (1984) Findings of myoepithelial cells in human breast cancer. Ultrastructural and immunohistochemical study by means of anti-myosin antibody. Acta Pathol Jpn 34: 537–552Google Scholar
  61. Herrera GA, Pinto de Moraes H (1984) Neurogenic sarcomas in patients with neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen’s disease). Virchows Arch (Pathol Anat) 403: 361–376Google Scholar
  62. Hiramoto R, Jurandowski J, Bernecky J, Pressman D (1961) Immunochemical differentiation of rhadomyosarcomas. Cancer Res 21: 383–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Hosaka M, Murase N, Orito T, Mori M (1985) Immunohistochemical evaluation of factor VIII related antigen, filament proteins and lectin binding in haemangiomas. Virchows Arch (Pathol Anat) 407: 237–247Google Scholar
  64. Hoyer LV, de los Santos RP, Hoyer JR (1973) Antihemophilic factor antigen: localization in endothelial cells by immunofluorescent microscopy. J Clin Invest 52: 2737–2744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Iacopetta BJ, Morgan EH, Yeoh GCT (1983) Receptor-mediated endocytosis of transferrin by developing erythroid cells from the fetal rat liver. J Histochem Cytochem 31: 336–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Imoto M, Nishimura D, Fukuda Y, Sugiyama K, Kumada T (1985) Immunohistochemical detection of alpha-fetoprotein, carcinoembryonic antigen, and ferritin in formalin-paraffin sections from hepatocellular carcinoma. Am J Gastroenterol 80: 902–906PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Isaacson P, Wright DH (1978) Malignant histiocytosis of the intestine. Its relationship to malabsorption and ulcerative jejunitis. Hum Pathol 9: 661–677Google Scholar
  68. Isaacson P, Jones DB, Judd MA (1979) Alpha1-antitrypsin in human macrophages. Lancet 11: 964–965Google Scholar
  69. Isaacson P, Jones DB, Millward-Sadler GH, Judd MA, Payne S (1981) Alpha t-antitrypsin in human macrophages. J Clin Pathol 34: 982–989PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Isaacson PG, Jones DB, Sworn MJ, Wright DH (1982) Malignant histiocytosis of the intestine: report of three cases with immunological and cytochemical analysis. J Clin Pathol 35: 510–516 \Google Scholar
  71. Isobe T, Tsugita T, Okuyama T (1978) The amino acid sequence and the subunit structure of bovine brain S-100 protein ( PAP I-b ). J Neurochem 30: 921–923Google Scholar
  72. Isobe T, Ishioka N, Okuyama T (1981) Structural relation of two S-100 proteins in bovine brain: subunit composition of S-lOOa protein. Eur J Biochem 115: 469–474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Isobe T, Ishioka N, Masuda T, Takahashi Y, Ganno S, Okuyama T (1983) A rapid separation of S-100 subunits by high performance liquid chromatography: the subunit composition of S-100 proteins. Biochem Int 6: 419–426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Jacobsen GK, Jacobsen M (1983) Ferritin (FER) in testicular germ cell tumors. An immunohistochemical study. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand (A) 91: 177–181Google Scholar
  75. Jaffe EA (1977) Endothelial cells and the biology of factor VIII. N Engl J Med 296: 377–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Jong AS, van Vark M, Albus-Lutter CE, van Raamsdonk W, Voute PA (1984) Myosin and myoglobin as tumor markers in the diagnosis of rhabdomyosarcoma. A comparative study. Am J Surg Pathol 8: 521–528Google Scholar
  77. Kagawa N, Sano T, Inaba H, Mori K, Hizawa K (1983) Immunohistochemistry of myoglobin in rhabdomyosarcomas. Acta Pathol Jpn 33: 515–522PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Kagen L (1973) Myoglobin. Biochemical, physiological and clinical aspects. Columbia University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  79. Kahn HJ, Marks A, Thom H, Baumal R (1983a) Role of antibody to S-100 protein in diagnostic pathology. Am J Clin Pathol 79: 341–347Google Scholar
  80. Kahn HJ, Yeger H, Kassin O, Jorgensen AM, McLennan D, Baumal R, Smith CR, Phillips MJ ( 1983 b) Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic assessment of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma. Increased accuracy of diagnosis over routine histologic methods. Cancer 51: 1897–1903Google Scholar
  81. Katus HA, Hurrell JG, Matsueda GR, Ehrlich P, Zurawski VR, Khaw BA, Haber E (1982) Increased specificity in cardiac-myosin radioimmunoassay utilizing two monoclonal antibodies in double sandwich assay. Mol Immunol 19: 451–455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Katus HA, Yasuada I, Gold HK, Leinbach RC, Stauss HW, Waksmonski C, Haber E, Khaw BA (1984) Diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction by detection of circulating cardiac myosin light chains. Am J Cardiol 54: 964–970PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Khaw BA, Strauss HW, Carvallo A, Locke E, Goel HK, Haber E (1982) Technetium 99m labeling of antibodies to cardiac myosin Fab and to human fibrinogen. J Nucl Med 23: 1011–1019PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Khaw BA, Strauss HW, Pohost GM, Fallon JT, Katus HA, Haber E (1983) Relation of immediate and delayed thallium-201 distribution to localization of iodine-125 antimyosin antibody in acute experimental myocardial infarction. Am J Cardiol 51: 1428–1432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Kimura T, Budka H, Soler-Federspiel S (1986) An immunohistochemical comparison of the glia- associated proteins glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S-100 protein (S-100 P) in human brain tumors. Clin Neuropathol 5: 21–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Kindblom L (1982) Factor VIII related antigen and mast cells. Acta Path Microbiol Immunol Scand 90A: 437–441Google Scholar
  87. Kindblom LG, Jacobsen GK, Jacobsen M (1982) Immunohistochemical investigations of tumors of supposed fibroblastic-histiocytic origin. Hum Pathol 13: 834–840PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Kindblom LG, Lodding P, Angervall L (1983) Clear-cell sarcoma of tendons and aponeuroses. An immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analysis indicating neural crest origin. Vir- chows Arch (Pathol Anat) 401: 109–128Google Scholar
  89. Kindblom LG, Lodding P, Rosengren L, Baudier J, Haglid K (1984) S-100 protein in melanocyte tumors. Acta Pathol Microbiol Immunol Scand 92A: 219–230Google Scholar
  90. Klockars M, Reitamo S (1974) Tissue distribution of lysozyme in man. J Histochem Cytochem 23: 932–940Google Scholar
  91. Koh SJ, Johnson WW (1980) Antimyosin and antirhabdomyoblast sera: Their use for the diagnosis of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 104: 118–122Google Scholar
  92. Kondo H, Iwanaga T, Nakajima T (1982) An immunocytochemical study of the localization of neuron-specific enolase and S-100 protein in the carotid body of rats. Cell Tissue Res 227: 291–295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Laufberger V (1937) Sur la cristallisation de la ferritin. Bull Soc Chim Biol 19: 1575–1583Google Scholar
  94. Lemanski LF, Tu ZH (1983) Immunofluorescent studies for myosin, actin, tropomyosin and a-actinin in cultured cardiomyopathic hamster heart cells. Dev Biol 97: 338–348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Ling L, Klein MJ, Sissons HA, Steiner GC (1986) Lysozyme and ar-antitrypsin in giant-cell tumor of bone and in other lesions that contain giant cells. Arch Pathol Lab Med 110: 713–718PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Little D, Said JW, Siegel RJ, Fealy M, Fishbein MC (1986) Endothelial cell markers in vascular neoplasms: an immunohistochemical study comparing factor VHI-related antigen, blood group specific antigens, 6-keto-PGFl alpha, and Ulex europaeus I lectin. J Pathol 149: 89–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Longtine JA, Pinkus GS, Fujiwara K, Corson JM (1985) Immunohistochemical localization of smooth muscle myosin in normal human tissue. J Histochem Cytochem 33: 179–184PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Ludwin SK, Kosek JC, Eng LF (1981) The topographical distribution of S-100 and GFA proteins in the adult rat brain: an immunohistochemical study using horseradish peroxidase-labelled antibodies. J Comp Neurol 165: 197–208Google Scholar
  99. Macartney JC, Trevithick MA, Kricka L, Curran RC (1979) Identification of myosin in human epithelial cancers with immunofluorescence. Lab Invest 41: 437–445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Mason DY, Taylor CR (1975) The distribution of muramidase (lysozyme) in human tissues. J Clin Pathol 28: 124–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Matsunou H, Shimoda T, Kakimoto S, Yamashita H, Ishikawa E, Mukai M (1985) Histopathologic and immunohistochemical study of malignant tumors of peripheral nerve sheath (malignant schwannoma). Cancer 56: 2269–2279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Matus A, Mughal S (1975) Immunohistochemical localization of S-100 protein in brain. Nature 258: 764–768Google Scholar
  103. McComb RD, Jones TR, Pizzo SV, Bigner DD (1982) Specificity and sensitivity of immunohistochemical detection of factor VIII/von Willebrand factor antigen in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. J Histochem Cytochem 30: 371–377PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Mechtersheimer G, Brandt I, Möller P (1986) Differences in marker expression among branched histiocytic cells in the T-areas of the lymphoreticular system and among their epidermis- and mucosa-associated equivalents. Cell Tissue Res 244: 471–478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Meister P, Goessner W (1983) Factor VIII staining of fibrous haematopoietic tumors. Hum Pathol 14: 924PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Meister P, Huhn D, Nathrath W (1980) Malignant histiocytosis. Immunohistological characterization on paraffin embedded tissue. Virchows Arch (Pathol Anat) 385: 233–246Google Scholar
  107. Mendelson G, Eggleston JC, Mann RB (1980) Relationship of lysozyme (muramidase) to histiocytic differentiation in malignant histiocytosis. An immunohistochemical study. Cancer 45: 273–279Google Scholar
  108. Michetti F, Dell’ Anna E, Tiberio G, Cocchia D (1983) Immunochemical and immunocytochemical study of S-100 protein in rat adipocytes. Brain Res 262: 352–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Miettinen M, Lehto V-P, Badley RA, Virtanen I (1982) Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma: demonstration of the muscle type of intermediate filament protein, desmin, as a diagnostic aid. Am J Pathol 108: 246–251PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Millard PR, Heryet AR (1985) An immunohistological study of factor VIII related antigen and Kaposi’s sarcoma using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. J Pathol 146: 31–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Modlin RL, Hofman FM, Kempf RA, Taylor CR, Conant MA, Rea TH (1983) Kaposi’s sarcoma in homosexual men: an immunohistochemical study. J Am Acad Dermatol 8: 620–627PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Molin SO, Rosengren L, Baudier J, Hamberger A, Haglid K (1985) S-100 alpha-like immunoreactivity in tubules of rat kidney. The clue to the function of a “brain-specific” protein. J Histochem Cytochem 33: 367–310Google Scholar
  113. Möller P, Lennert K (1984) On the angiostructure of lymph nodes in Hodgkin’s disase. An immuno-histochemical study using the lectin I of Ulex europaeus as endothelial marker. Virchows Arch (Pathol Anat) 403: 257–270Google Scholar
  114. Möller P, Wirbel R, Hofmann W, Schwechheimer K (1984) Lymphoepithelial carcinoma ( Schmincketype) as a derivate of the tonsillar crypt epithelium. Virchows Arch (Pathol Anat) 405: 85–93Google Scholar
  115. Moller M, Ingrid A, Bock E (1978) Immunohistochemical demonstration of S-100 protein and GFA protein in interstitial cells of rat pineal gland. Brain Res 140: 1–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Moore BW (1965) A soluble protein characteristic of the nervous system. Biochem Biophys Res Comm 19: 739–744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Morse JO (1978) Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency. N Engl J Med 299: 1045–1048PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Motoi M, Helbron D, Kaiserling E, Lennert K (1980) Eosinophilic granuloma of lymph nodesGoogle Scholar
  119. a variant of histiocytosis X. Histopathol 4: 585–606Google Scholar
  120. Mukai M (1983) Immunohistochemical localization of S-100 protein and peripheral nerve myelin proteins (P2 protein, PO protein) in granular cell tumors. Am J Pathol 112: 139–146PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Mukai K, Rosai J, Hallaway BE (1979) Localization of myoglobin in normal and neoplastic human skeletal muscle cells using an immunoperoxidase method. Am J Surg Pathol 3: 373–376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Mukai K, Varela-Duran J, Nochomovitz LE (1980a) The rhabdomyoblast in mixed muellerian tumors of the uterus and ovary. An immunohistochemical study of myoglobin in 25 cases. Am J Clin Pathol 74: 101–104Google Scholar
  123. Nadji M, Morales AR, Ziegels J, Penneys NS (1980) Kaposi’s sarcoma: Immunohistochemical evidence for an endothelial origin. J Invest Dermatopathol 74: 254–255Google Scholar
  124. Nakajima T, Yamaguchi H, Takahashi K (1980) S-100 protein in folliculostellate cells of the rat pituitary anterior lobe. Brain Res 191: 523–531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Nakajima T, Watanabe S, Yuichi S, Kameye T, Hirota T, Shimosato Y (1982) An immunoperoxidase study of S-100 protein distributed in normal and neoplastic tissues. Am J Surg Pathol 6: 715–727PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Nakamura Y, Becker LE, Marks A (1983) Distribution of immunoreactive S-100 protein in pediatric brain tumors. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 42: 136–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Nakanishi S, Shinomiya S, Sano T, Hizawa K (1982) Immunohistochemical observation of intracyto- plasmic lysozyme in proliferative and neoplastic fibrohistiocytic lesions. Acta Pathol Jpn 32: 949–959PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Nakazato Y, Ishizeki J, Takahashi K, Yamaguchi H (1982) Immunohistochemical localization of S-100 protein in granular cell myoblastomas. Cancer 49: 1624–1628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. Nakazato Y, Ishida Y, Takahashi K, Suzuki K (1985) Immunohistochemical distribution of S-100 protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein in normal and neoplastic salivary glands. Virchows Arch (Pathol Anat) 405: 299–310Google Scholar
  130. Nathrath WB, Remberger K (1986) Immunohistochemical study of granular cell tumors. Demonstration of neurone specific enolase, S-100 protein, laminin and alpha-1-antichymotrypsin. Virchows Arch (Pathol Anat) 408: 421–434Google Scholar
  131. Osserman EF (1975) Lysozyme. N Engl J Med 292: 424 - 425Google Scholar
  132. Papadimitriou CS, Stein H, Lennert K (1978) The complexity of immunohistochemical staining pattern of Hodgkin and Sternberg-Reed cells — demonstration of immunoglobulin, albumin, alphai-antichymotrypsin and lysozyme. Int J Cancer 21: 531–541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Parmley RT, Ostroy F, Gams RA, de Lucas L (1979) Ferrocyanide staining of transferrin and ferritin-conjugated antibody to transferrin. J Histochem Cytochem 27: 681–685Google Scholar
  134. Payne SV, Wright DH, Jones KJM, Judd MA (1982) Macrophage origin of Reed-Sternberg cells: an immunohistochemical study. J Clin Pathol 35: 159–166PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. Pinkus GS, Warhol MJ, O’Connor EM, Etheridge CL, Fujiwara K (1986) Immunohistochemical localization of smooth muscle myosin in human spleen, lymph node, and other lymphoid tissues. Am J Pathol 123: 440–453PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Piovella F, Nalli G, Malamani GD, Majdino I, Frassoni F, Sitar GM, Ruggeri A, Dell Orbo C, Asceri E (1978) The ultrastructural localization of Factor VIII antigen in human platelets, megakaryocytes and endothelial cells utilizing a ferritin-labelled antibody. Br J Haematol 39: 209–213PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Poppema S, Elema JD, Halie MR (1978) The significance of intracytoplasmic proteins in Reed- Sternberg cells. Cancer 42: 1793–1803PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Rode J, Dhillon AP (1984) Neurone specific enolase and S-100 protein as possible prognostic indicators in melanoma. Histopathology 8: 1041–1052PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Roholl PJ, Kleyne J, Elbers H, Van der Vegt MC, Albus-Lutter C, Van Unnik JA (1985) Characterization of tumor cells in malignant fibrous histiocytomas and other soft tissue tumors in comparison with malignant histiocytomas. I. Immunohistochemical study on paraffin sections. J Pathol 147: 87–95Google Scholar
  140. Royds JA, Variend S, Timperley WR, Taylor CB (1985) Comparison of beta enolase and myoglobin as histological markers of rhabdomyosarcoma. J Clin Pathol 38: 1258–1260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Saku T, Tsuda N, Anami M, Okabe H (1985) Smooth and skeletal muscle myosin in spindle cell tumors of soft tissue. An immunohistochemical study. Acta Pathol Jpn 35: 125–136Google Scholar
  142. Schiaffino S, Gorza L, Sartore S, Saggin L, Carli M (1986) Embryonic myosin heavy chain as a differentiation marker of developing human skeletal muscle and rhabdomyosarcoma. A monoclonal antibody study. Exp Cell Res 163: 211–220Google Scholar
  143. Schmidt D, Harms D, Burach St (1985) Malignant peripheral neuroectodermal tumours of childhood and adolescence. Virchows Arch (Pathol Anat) 404: 351–365Google Scholar
  144. Schneider C, Owen MJ, Banville D, Williams JG (1984) Primary structure of human transferrin receptor deduced from the mRNA sequence. Nature 311: 675–678PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. Scupham R, Gilbert EF, Wilde J, Wiedrich TA (1986) Immunohistochemical studies of rhabdomyosarcoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med 110: 818–821PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Sehested M, Hou-Jensen K (1981) Factor VIII related antigen as an endothelial cell marker in benign and malignant diseases. Virchows Arch (Pathol Anat) 391: 217–225Google Scholar
  147. Sehested M, Barfoed C, Krogdahl A, Bretlau P (1985) Immunohistochemical investigation of lysozyme, lactoferrin, alphal-antitrypsin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin and ferritin in parotid gland tumors. J Oral Pathol 14: 459–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Seo S, Min KW, Mirkin D (1986) Juvenile xanthogranuloma. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical studies. Arch Pathol Lab Med 110: 911–915Google Scholar
  149. Shimada H, Aoyama C, Chiba T, Newton WA (1985) Prognostic subgroups for undifferentiated neuroblastoma: Immunohistochemical study with anti-S-100 protein antibody. Hum Pathol 16: 471–476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Sonoda T, Hashimoto H, Enjoji M (1985) Juvenile xanthogranuloma: Clinicopathologic analysis and immunohistochemical study of 57 patients. Cancer 56: 2280–2286PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Springall DR, Gu J, Cocchia D, Michetti F, Levene A, Levene MM, Marangos PJ, Bloom SR, Polak JM (1983) The value of S-100 immunostaining as a diagnostic tool in human malignant melanomas. Virchows Arch (Pathol Anat) 400: 331–343Google Scholar
  152. Stefansson K, Wollmann R, Jerkovic M (1982a) S-100 protein in soft tissue tumors derived from Schwann cells and melanocytes. Am J Pathol 106: 261–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Stefansson K, Wollmann RL, Moore BW (1982b) Distribution of S-100 protein outside the central nervous system. Brain Res 234: 309–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Stefansson K, Wollmann RL, Moore BW, Arnason BGW (1982c) S-100 protein in human chondrocytes. Nature 295: 63–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Stein H, Lennert K, Feller AC, Mason DY (1984) Immunohistological analysis of human lymphoma: correlation of histological and immunological categories. Adv Cancer Res 42: 67–73 Strauchen JA, Dimitriu-Bona A (1986) Malignant fibrous histiocytoma. Expression of monocyte/ macrophage differentiation antigens detected with monoclonal antibodies. Am J Pathol 124: 303–309Google Scholar
  156. Strominger JL, Tipper DJ (1974) Structure of the bacterial walls: The lysozyme substrate. In: Osserman EF, Canfield RE, Beychok S (eds) Lysozyme. Academic Press, New York, pp 169–184Google Scholar
  157. Syrovy I (1979) Polymorphism and specificity of myosin: A review. Int J Biochem 10: 383–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. Takahashi K, Yamaguchi H, Ishizeki J, Nakajima T, Nakazato Y (1981) Immunohistochemical and immunoelectron microscopic localization of S-100 protein in the interdigitating reticulum cells of the human lymph node. Virchows Arch (Cell Pathol) 37: 125–135Google Scholar
  159. Taxy JB, Battifora H (1977) Malignant fibrous histiocytoma: An electron microscopic study. Cancer 40: 254–267Google Scholar
  160. Terenghi G, Polak JM, Ballestra J, Cocchia D, Michetti F, Dahl D, Marangos PJ, Garner A (1984) Immunocytochemistry of neuronal and glial markers in retinoblastomas. Virchows Arch (Pathol Anat) 405: 61–73Google Scholar
  161. Travis J, Garner D, Bowen J (1978) Human ax-antichymotrypsin: purification and properties. Bio-chemistry 17: 5647–5651Google Scholar
  162. Tsokos M, Triche TJ (1986) Immunocytochemical and ultrastructural study of primitive “solidvariant” rhabdomyosarcoma. Lab Invest 54: 65AGoogle Scholar
  163. Tsokos M, Howard R, Costa J (1983) Immunohistochemical study of alveolar and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. Lab Invest 48: 148–155PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Tufty RM, Kretsinger RH (1975) Troponin and parvalbumin calcium binding regions predicted in myosin light chain and T4 lysozyme. Science 187: 167–169PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Unsicker K, Drenckhahn D, Groeschel-Steward U (1978) Further immunofluorescence — microscopic evidence for myosin in various peripheral nerves. Cell Tissue Res 188: 341–344PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. van Furth R, Kramps JA, Dieselhof-Den Dulk MMC (1983) Synthesis of ax-antitrypsin by human monocytes. Clin Exp Immunol 51: 551–557PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Vassy J, Rissel M, Kraemer M, Foucrier J, Guillouzo A (1984) Ultrastructural indirect immunolocalization of transferrin in cultured hepatocytes permeabilized with saponin. J Histochem Cytochem 32: 538–540PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. Vilpo J A, Klemi P, Lassila O, Franki J, Salmi TT (1980) Cytological and functional characterization of three cases of malignant histiocytosis. Cancer 46: 1795–1801PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. Watanabe S, Nakajima T, Shimosato Y, Sato Y, Ise T (1981) A case report of histiocytic medullary reticulosis defined as neoplasm of T-zone histiocytes. Jpn J Clin Oncol 11: 411–418Google Scholar
  170. Watanabe S, Nakajima T, Shimosato Y, Sato Y, Shimizu K (1983) Malignant histocytosis and Letterer-Siwe disease. Neoplasms of T-zone histiocyte with S100 protein. Cancer 51: 1412–1424PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. Weber K, Groeschel-Steward U (1974) Antibody to myosin: The specific visiualization of myosin- containing filaments in non-muscle cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 71: 4561–4564Google Scholar
  172. Weiss SW, Langloss JM, Enzinger GM (1983) Value of S-100 protein in the diagnosis of soft tissue tumors with particular reference to benign and malignant Schwann cell tumors. Lab Invest 49: 299–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. Willingham MC, Pastan I (1985) Ultrastructural immunocytochemical localization of the transferrin receptor using a monoclonal antibody in human KB cells. J Histochem Cytochem 33: 59–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. Wilson GB, Walker JH, Watkins JH, Wolgroch D (1980) Determination of subpopulations of leukocytes involved in the synthesis of ar-antitrypsin in vitro. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 164: 105–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. Wirbel R, Möller P, Schwechheimer K (1984) Lectin-binding spectra in the hyperplastic human tonsil. Effect of formalin fixation and paraffin embedding on lectin affinity of tissue components. Histochem 81: 551–560Google Scholar
  176. Wood GS, Beckstead JH, Turner RR, Hendrickson MR, Kempson RL, Warnke RA (1985) Malignant fibrous histiocytoma cells do not express the antigenic or enzyme histiochemical features of cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage. Lab Invest 52: 78AGoogle Scholar
  177. Yamaguchi H (1980) Studies on the immunohistochemical localization of S-100 and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the rat nervous system and human brain tumors. Brain Nerve (Tokyo) 32: 287–303Google Scholar
  178. Zomzely-Neurath CE, Walker WA (1980) Nervous system-specific proteins: 14.3.2 protein, neuron- specific enolase, and S-100 protein. In: Bradshaw RA, Schneider DM (eds) Proteins of the nervous system, 2nd edn. Raven Press, New York, pp 30–52Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. F. Otto
  • R. Berndt
  • K. Schwechheimer
  • P. Möller

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations