Advertisement

Effect of Electrical Stimulation on Denervated Muscle

  • W. A. Nix

Abstract

The possibilities of noninvasive treatment in peripheral nerve injuries are limited. Although it is well known that the severance of a nerve results in paralysis of the dependent tissue, the methods of treating a denervated muscle are still controversial. The most obvious result of denervation is muscle atrophy and paralysis. In 1841 Reid forced the denervated muscle to contract by electrical stimulation to replace the loss of activity and observed that this treatment retarded atrophy. Since then, there has been continuing interest in preventing muscle atrophy with electrotherapy. Peripheral nerve injuries in the two world wars were, for instance, extensively treated with electrical stimulation. However, the usefulness of this therapeutic regime has been doubtful since reports of the success of the treatment are far from uniform. To date there have been no rigorous studies to evaluate the beneficial effect of this procedure in patients. Along with the clinical trials animal experiments have been conducted, yet many of these are impossible to compare, because the conditions of the experiments, such as stimuli parameters, duration of treatment, and conditions under which the muscle contracted, were too different. The best study conducted to date was that of Gutmann and Guttmann in 1944. They proved morphologically an atrophy-retarding effect of electrical stimulation in rabbit extensor digi-torum longus (EDL). The results were dependent on controlled experimental conditions; treatment had to be applied each day for at least 20 min and the elicited muscle contraction had to be vigorous.

Keywords

Electrical Stimulation Fibre Diameter Soleus Muscle Peripheral Nerve Injury Stimulate Muscle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Brown MC, Ironton R (1977) Suppression of motor nerve terminal sprouting in partially denervated mouse muscle. J Physiol (Lond) 272: 70–71PGoogle Scholar
  2. Brown MC, Goodwin G, Ironton R (1977) Prevention of nerve sprouting in botulinum toxin poisoned mouse soleus muscle by direct stimulation of the muscle. J Physiol (Lond) 267: 42–43PGoogle Scholar
  3. Buller A, Eccles J, Eccles R (1960) Differentiation of fast and slow muscles in the cat hind limb. J Physiol (Lond) 150: 339–370Google Scholar
  4. Burke RE, Levine FE, Zajac FE, Tsairis P, Engel WK (1971) Mammalian motor units: physiological-histochemical correlation in three types of cat gastrognemius. Science 174: 709–712PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cole B, Gardiner P (1984) Does electrical stimulation of denervated muscle. continued after rein-nervation, influence recovery of contractile function? Exp Neurol 85: 52–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dubowitz V, Brooke M (1973) Muscle Biopsy: A modern approach. Saunders, LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. Eerbeek O, Kernell D, Verhey BA (1984) Effects of fast and slow patterns of tonic long-term stimulation on contractile properties of fast muscle in the cat. J Physiol (Lond) 352: 73–90Google Scholar
  8. Fischer E, Ramsey V (1946) The effect of daily stimulation of normal and denervated muscle upon their protein content and upon some of the physicochemical properties of the protein. Am J Physiol 145: 583–586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Fleisch A, Estoppey J, Hofstetter J (1952) Etude expérimentale du traitment électrique des muscles paralysés. Helv Physiol Acta 10: 93–109Google Scholar
  10. Girlanda P, Dattola R, Vita G, Oteri G, LoPresti F, Messina C (1982) Effects of electrotherapy on denervated muscle in rabbits: an electrophysiological and morphological study. Exp Neurol 77: 483–491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Goldspink D (1978) The influence of passive stretch on the growth and protein turnover of denervated extensor digitorum longus muscle. Biochem J 174: 595–602PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Gutmann E, Guttmann L (1944) The effect of galvanic exercise on denervated and re-innervated muscles in the rabbit. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 7: 7–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hines H, Melville E, Wehrmacher W. (1945) The effect of electrical stimulation on neuromuscular regeneration. Am J Physiol 144: 278–283Google Scholar
  14. Hudlická O, Tyler K, Aitman T (1980) The effect of long-term electrical stimulation on fuel uptake and performance in fast skeletal muscle. In: Pette D (ed) Plasticity of muscle. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, pp 401–408Google Scholar
  15. Lømo T, Westgaard R, Dahl H (1974) Contractile properties of muscle: control by pattern of muscle activity in the rat. Proc R Soc Lond [Biol] 187: 99–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lømo T, Westgaard R, Engebretsen L (1980) Different stimulation pattern affect contractile properties of denervated rat soleus muscles. In: Pette D (ed) Plasticity of muscle. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, pp 297–309Google Scholar
  17. Melichna J, Gutmann E (1974) Stimulation and immobilisation effects on contractile and histochemical properties of denervated muscle. Pflugers Arch 352: 165–178PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Nachmias V, Padykula H (1958) A histochemical study of normal and denervated red and white muscle of the rat. J Biophys Biochem Cytol 4: 47–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Nemeth P (1982) Electrical stimulation of denervated muscle prevents decrease in oxidative enzymes. Muscle Nerve 5: 134–139PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Nix WA (1982) The effect of low frequency electrical stimulation on the denervated extensor digitorum longus of the rabbit. Acta Neurol Scand 66: 521–528PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nix WA (1986) Maintenance of muscle integrity following denervation. In: Dimitrijevic M, Kakulas BA, Vrbová G (eds) Recent achievements in restorative neurology. Karger, Basel (to be published)Google Scholar
  22. Nix WA, Hopf HC (1983) Electrical stimulation of regenerating nerve and its effect on motor recovery. Brain Res 272: 21–25PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nix WA, Heinz A, Schreiber T (1983) Elektrische Reizmuster als Faktor zur funktionellen Beeinflussung denervierter Muskulatur. In: Seitz D, Vogel P (eds) Verhandlungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Neurologie. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 823–832Google Scholar
  24. Nix WA, Reichmann H, Schröder JM (1985) Influence of direct low frequency Stimulation on contractile properties of denervated fast-twitch rabbit muscle. Pflugers Arch 405: 141–147PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pette D, Smith M, Staudte H, Vrbová G (1973) Effects of long-term electrical stimulation on some contractile and metabolic characteristics of fast rabbit muscle. Pflugers Arch 338: 257–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Pette D, Ramirez U, Müller W, Simon R, Exner G, Hildebrandt R (1975) Influence of intermittent long term stimulation on contractile, histochemical and metabolic properties of fibre populations in fast and slow rabbit muscle. Pflugers Arch 361: 1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pette D, Müller W, Leisner E, Vrbová G (1976) Time dependant effects on contractile properties, fibre population, myosin light chains and enzyme metabolism in intermittent and continuously stimulated fast twitch muscle of rabbit. Pflugers Arch 364: 103–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Reichmann H, Nix WA (1985) Changes of energy metabolism, myosin light chain composition, lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme pattern and fibre type distribution of denervated fast-twitch muscle of rabbit after low frequency stimulation. Pflugers Arch 405: 244–249PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Reid J (1841) On the relation between muscular contractility and the nervous system. Lond Edinb Month J Med Sci 1: 320–329Google Scholar
  30. Salmons S, Vrbová G (1969) The influence of activity on some contractile characteristics of mammalian fast and slow muscle. J Physiol (Lond) 201: 535–549Google Scholar
  31. Westgaard R (1975) Influence of activity on the passive electrical properties of denervated soleus muscle fibres in the rat. J Physiol (Lond) 251: 683–697Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. A. Nix
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurology, University ClinicsJohannes-Gutenberg UniversityMainzWest Germany

Personalised recommendations