Monitors in Closed-Circuit Anaesthesia

  • M. Yamashita
  • H. Ishihara
  • T. Oyama
Conference paper


Monitoring of the central nervous or cardiovascular system during closed-circuit anaesthesia is no different from that in high-flow system anaesthesia. However, during closed-circuit anaesthesia, monitoring of oxygen, carbon dioxide and halothane concentrations in the circuit is an essential and integral part of the practice of this system.


Dioxide Zirconium Rubber Lime Halothane 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Yamashita
  • H. Ishihara
  • T. Oyama

There are no affiliations available

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