The Closed Circuit: Past and Future

Conference paper


In more than 12 years, the closed-circuit system has proved its worth in over 60000 patients in our department of anesthesiology. From its first simple beginnings up to the present day we have used it throughout the years to our patients’ benefit with complete safety and with no sort of untoward incidents. To reach this standard, we expended a great deal of effort over the years 1972–1984 on building up the system step by step and then refining and improving it. During this process we soon became aware that this system would allow far-reaching improvements in all subspecialties of anesthesiology, including intensive care and resuscitation.


Cardiac Output Alveolar Ventilation Pulmonary Perfusion Silent Aspiration System Step 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Droh

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