Topographic Analysis of Neurologic Symptoms in Brain Stem Diseases

  • A. Hartmann
  • J. Wappenschmidt
Conference paper


In cases of large space-occupying or destructive lesions the topographic assignment of brain stem processes is easily made using cranial computerized tomography (CCT) or nuclear magnetic resonance. However, these technical tools often fail if the tissue alteration is small or does not contrast to the surrounding tissue. In these cases and when technical procedures cannot be performed the topographic assignment must be done only with the clinical examination. F.i. in Wernicke’s encephalopathy a positive CCT is an exception (Fig. 1 ). Usually the diagnosis is made by clinical examination.


Brain Stem Medulla Oblongata Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Oculomotor Nerve Cranial Computerize Tomography 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Braems M, Dehaene I (1975) Ocular bobbing: clinical significance. Clin Neurol Neurosurg 78: 99–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chemiack NS, von Euler C, Homma I et al. (1979) Experimentally induced Cheyne-Stokes breathing. Respir Physiol 37: 185–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cogan DG, Kubik CS, Smith WL (1950) Unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia: report of 8 clinical cases with one post-mortem study. Arch Ophthalmol 44: 783–796CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Daroff RB, Hoyt WF (1971) Supranuclear disorders of ocular control system in man: clinical and physiological correlations. In: Bach-y-Rita P, Collins CC, Hyde JE (eds) The Control of Eye Movements. Academic Press, New York, 17/5Google Scholar
  5. Elschnig A (1913) Nystagmus retractorius: Ein zerebrales Herdsymptom. Med Klin 9: 8–11Google Scholar
  6. Fisher CM (1964) Ocular bobbing. Arch Neurol 11: 543–546PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fisher CM (1969) The neurological examination of the comatose patients. Acta Neurol Scand [Suppl 36) 45: 1–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Keane JR, Rawlinson DG, Lu AT (1976) Sustained downward deviation. Two cases without structural pretectallesions. Neurology (NY) 26: 594–595Google Scholar
  9. King WM, Lisberger AG, Fuchs AF (1976) Response of fibers in medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) of alert monkeys during horizontal and vertical conjugate eye movements evoked by vestibular or visuli stimuli. J Neurophysiol 65: 135–1149Google Scholar
  10. Lourie H (1963) Seesaw nystagmus. Arch Neurol 9: 531–533PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. North JB, Jennett S (1974) Abnormal breathing patterns associated with acute brain damage. Arch Neural 31: 338–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ochs A, Stark L, Hoyt WF et al. (1979) Opposed adducting saccades in convergence-retraction nystagmus: a patient with Sylvian aqueduct syndrome. Brain 102: 497–508PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Salomon J (1971) Atlas de la vascularisation arterielle du cerveau chez l’homme. Sandoz Editions, ParisGoogle Scholar
  14. Smith JL, David NJ (1964) Internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Two new clinical signs. Neurology (NY) 14: 307–309Google Scholar
  15. Smith JL, David NJ, Klintworth G (1964) Skew deviation. Neurology (NY) 14: 96–105Google Scholar
  16. Souadjian JV , Cain JC (1938) Intractable hiccup. Etiologic factors in 220 cases. Postgrad Med 43: 72–77Google Scholar
  17. Stewart JD, Kirkham TH, Mathieson G (1979) Periodic alternating gaze. Neurology (NY) 29: 222–224Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Hartmann
    • 1
  • J. Wappenschmidt
    • 1
  1. 1.BonnGermany

Personalised recommendations