How Do Volatile Agents Produce Anesthesia?

  • J. R. Trudell
Conference paper
Part of the Anaesthesiology Intensive Care Medicine/Anaesthesiologie und Intensivmedizin book series (A+I, volume 182)

Abstract

Nearly all of the molecular mechnisms of inhalation anesthesia reviewed here will be very general in their applicability. This generality is required because inhalation anesthetics have important effects in muscles, vascula walls, and components of many tissues, and not only the brain and central nervous system. Despite years of effort with techniques such as selective brain lesions, applications of stimulating currents, injections of neurotransmitters, or measurement of local rates of glucose utilization [1, 2], it is still not known in which principal region of structure in the brain anesthesia occurs.

Keywords

Cholesterol Acetylcholine Fluorine Compressibility Oligosaccharide 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Hibbard LS, Hawkins RA (1983) Three-dimensional reconstruction of metabolic data: mapping the action of anesthetics. Anesthesiology 59: A387Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Crosby G, Crane AM, Sokoloff L (1984) A comparison of local rates of glucose utilization in spinal cord and brain in conscious and nitrous oxide- or pentobarbital-treated rats. Anesthesiology 61: 434–438PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fink BR (ed) (1980) Molecular mechanisms of anestesia. Raven, New York (Progress in anesthesiology, vol 2 )Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Berrige MJ (1985) The molecular basis of communication within the cell. Sci Am 253: 143–152Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bretcher MS (1985) The molecules of the cell membrane. Sci Am 253: 100–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Eyring H, Woodbury JW, D’Arrigo JS (1973) A molecular mechanism of general anesthesia. Anesthesiology 38: 415–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ueda I, Kamaya H (1973) Kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of the mechanism of general anesthesia in a model system of firefly luminescence in vitro. Anesthesiology 38: 425–436PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sachsenheimer W, Pai EF, Schulz GE, Schirmer RH (1977) Halothane binds in the adenine-specific niche of crystalline adenylate kinase. FEBS Lett 79: 310–312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    White DC, Wardley-Smith B, Adey G (1975) Anesthetics and bioluminescence. In: Fink BR (ed) Molecular mechanisms of anesthesia. Raven, New York, pp 583–591 (Progress in anesthesia, vol 1 )Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Franks NP, Lieb WR (1984) Do general anaesthetics act by competitive binding to specific receptors? Nature 310: 599–601PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bangham AD, Hill MW, Mason WT (1980) In: Fink BR (ed) Molecular mechanism of anesthesia. Raven, New York, pp 69–77 (Progress in anesthesiology, vol 2)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Cullis PR, DeKruijff B (1978) Polymorphic phase behaviour of lipid mixtures as detected by 31P NMR. Evidence that cholesterol may destabilize bilayer structure in membrane systems containing phosphatidylethanolamine. Biochim Biophys Acta 507: 207–218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ranck JL, Keira T, Luzzati V (1977) A novel packing of the hydrocarbon chains in lipids. The low temperature phases of dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl-glycerol. Biochim Biophys Acta 488: 432–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mcintosh TJ, McDaniel RV, Simon SA (1983) Induction of an interdigitated gel phase in fully hydrated phosphatidylcholine bilayers. Biochim Biophys Acta 731: 109–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Miller KW, Paton WDM, Smith RA, Smith EB (1973) The pressure reversal of general anesthesia and the critical volume hypothesis. Mol Pharmacol 9: 131–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mori T, Matubayasi N, Ueda I (1984) Membrane expansion and inhalation anesthetics mean excess volume hypothesis. Mol Pharmacol 25: 123–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Trudell JR, Hubbell WL, Cohen EN (1973) The effect of two inhalation anesthetics on the order of spin-labeled phospholipid vesicles. Biochim Biophys Acta 291: 321–327PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Trudell JR (1980) Biophysical concepts in molecular mechanisms of anesthesia. In: Fink BR (ed) Molecular mechanisms of anesthesia. Raven, New York, pp 261–270 (Progress in anesthesia, vol 2 )Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Trudell JR (1977) A unitary theory of anesthesia based on lateral phase separations in nerve membranes. Anesthesiology 46: 5–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lamb RG, Schwertz DW (1982) The effects of bromobenzene and carbon tetrachloride exposure in vitro on the phospholipase C activity of rat liver cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 63: 216–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Pellkofer R (1980) Halothane increases membrane fluidity and stimulates sphingomyelin degradation by membrane-bound neutral sphingomyelinase of synaptosomal plasma membranes from calf brain already at clinical concentrations. J Neurochem 34: 988–992PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pauling L (1961) A molecular theory of general anesthesia. Science 134: 15–21PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Miller SL (1961) A theory of gaseous anesthetics. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 47: 1515–1524PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Trudell JR, Hubbell WL (1976) Localization of molecular halothane in phospholipid bilayer model nerve membranes. Anesthesiology 44: 202–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ueda I, Mashimo T (1982) Anesthetics expand partial molal volume of lipid-free protein dissolved in water: electrostriction hypothesis. Physiol Chem Phys 14: 157–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ueda I, Kamaya H (1984) Molecular mechanisms of anesthesia. Anesth Analg 63: 929–945PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Baldwin PA, Hubbell WL (in press) Effects of lipid environment on the light-induced conformational changes of rhodopsin: 1. Absence of metarhodopsin II production in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine recombinant membranes. J Biol ChemGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Richards CD, Martin K, Gregory S, Keightley CA, Hesketh TR, Smith GA, Warren GB, Metcalf JC (1978) Degenerate perturbations of protein structure as the mechanism of anaesthetic action. Nature 276: 775–779PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Willow M, Catterall WA (1982) Inhibition of binding of [3H]batrachotoxinin A20-benzoate to sodium channels by the anticonvulsant drugs diphenylhydantoin and carbamazepine. Mol Pharmacol 22: 627–635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Cohn ML, Cohn M (1980) Pentobarbital inhibition of deamination in brain cyclic AMP metabolic pathway. In: Fink BR (ed) Molecular mechanisms of anesthesia. Reven, New York, pp 241–250 (Progress in anesthesia, vol 2 )Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. R. Trudell

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations