Adrenal Mass Lesions in Infants and Children

  • J. L. Williams
  • J. V. Kaude


Lesions of the adrenal glands in the infant and child are rare. The presence of a palpable mass in the flank is often the only presenting clinical sign in the infant. In the older child, however, disorders in specific endocrine functions usually direct attention to the adrenal gland [4]. Once an abnormality is disclosed by serum biochemical studies, identification of the specific site is often necessary for appropriate therapy or follow-up. In this chapter we will first present the imaging options available and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each. This will be followed by a more detailed discussion of specific pathologic lesions.


Adrenal Gland Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia Adrenal Tumor Spin Echo Adrenal Vein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Adams JE, Johnson RJ, Rickards D, Isherwood I (1983) Computed tomography in adrenal disease. Clin Radiol 34: 39–49PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Agee OF, Kaude JV, Lepasoon J (1973) Preoperative localization of pheochromocytoma. Acta Radiol Diagn 14: 545–560Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bernardino ME, Goldstein HM, Green B (1978) Gray scale ultrasonography of adrenal neoplasms. AJR 130: 741–744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Caffey J (1978) Pediatric x-ray diagnosis, 7th edn. Year Book Medical, Chicago, pp 817, 943–948Google Scholar
  5. Caffey J (1978) Pediatric x-ray diagnosis, 7th edn. Year Book Medical, Chicago, pp 817, 1797–1807Google Scholar
  6. 5.
    Craig WP, Hawkins IF Jr, Kaude JV (1975) Selective adrenal venography in an infant with virilizing adrenal cortical carcinoma. Pediatr Radiol 3: 53–54PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 6.
    Davis PL, Hricak H, Bradley WG Jr (1984) Magnetic resonance imaging of the adrenal glands. RCNA 22: 891–895Google Scholar
  8. 7.
    Duck SC (1981) Malignancy associated with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. J Pediatr 99: 423–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 8.
    Geisinger MA, Zelch MG, Bravo EL, Risius BF, O’Donovan PB, Borkowski GP (1983) Primary hyperaldosteronism: comparison of CT, adrenal venography and venous sampling. AJR 141: 299–302PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 9.
    Ghiacy S, Dubbins PA, Baumer H (1985) Ultrasound demonstration of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. J Clin Ultrasound 13: 419–420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 10.
    Guerin CK, Wahner HW, Gorman CA, Carpenter PC, Sheedy PF (1983) Computed tomographic scanning versus radioisotope imaging in adrenocortical diagnosis. Am J Med 75: 653–657PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 11.
    Hayman S, Treves S (1979) Adrenal hemorrhage in the newborn: scintigraphic diagnosis. J Nucl Med 20: 521–523Google Scholar
  13. 12.
    Humphrey GB (ed) (1984) Adrenal and endocrine tumors in children. Martinus Nijhoff, BostonGoogle Scholar
  14. 13.
    Kaude JV (1979) Preoperative localization of Pheochromocytoma. In: Loehr E (ed) Renal and adrenal tumors. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 258–267Google Scholar
  15. 14.
    Mclnnis AN, Felman AH, Kaude JV, Walker D (1982) Renal ultrasound in the neonatal period. Pediatr Radiol 12: 15–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 15.
    Mittelstaaedt CA, Volberg FM, Merten DF, Brill PW (1979) The sonographic diagnosis of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage. Radiology 131: 453–457Google Scholar
  17. 16.
    Older RA, Van Moore A Jr, Glenn JF, Hidalgo HJ (1984) Diagnosis of adrenal disorders. RCNA 22: 433–454Google Scholar
  18. 17.
    Oppenheimer DA, Carroll BA, Yousem S (1983) Sonography of the normal neonatal adrenal gland. Radiology 146: 157–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 18.
    Queloz JM, Capitanio MA, Kirkpatrick JA (1972) Wolman’s disease. Radiology 104: 357–359PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 19.
    Saks JB, Bryan PJ, Yulish BS, Gauderer MWL, Haaga JR (1985) Comaprison of computed tomography and ultrasound in the evaluation of abdominal neuroblastoma. J Clin Ultrasound 13: 641–645PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 20.
    Sample WF, Sarti DA (1978) Computed tomography and gray scale ultrasonography of the adrenal gland: a comparative study. Radiology 128: 377–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 21.
    Schultz, CL, Haaga JR, Fletcher BD, Alfidi RJ, Schultz MA (1984) Magnetic resonance imaging of the adrenal glands: a comparison with computed tomography. AJR 143: 1235–1240PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 22.
    Welch TJ, Sheedy PF II, van Heerden JA, Sheps SG, Hattery RR, Stephens DH (1983) Pheochromocytoma: value of computed tomography. Radiology 148: 501–503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 23.
    White EM, Edelman RR, Stark DD, Simeone JF, Mueller PR, Brady TJ, Wittenberg J, Butch RJ, Ferrucci JT (1985) Surface coil MR imaging of abdominal viscera. Part II. The adrenal glands. Radiology 157: 431–436PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 24.
    Wicks JD, Mettler FA Jr (1983) Sonography of adrenal lesions causing hypertension. Urol Radiol 5: 99–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 25.
    Yeh H-C (1980) Sonography of the adrenal glands: normal glands and small masses. AJR 135: 1167–1177PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. L. Williams
  • J. V. Kaude

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations