Agoraphobia and the Hyperventilation Syndrome — the Role of Interpretations of Complaints

  • Bert Garssen
Conference paper


Agoraphobia is considered by many authors to be a secondary reaction to the occurrence of panic attacks (Roberts 1964; Mendel and Klein 1969; Grunhaus etal. 1981). Such a causal relation is plausible. It has been demonstrated, that the majority (69 to 100%) of agoraphobic patients have panic attacks (Roberts 1964; DiNardo et al. 1983; Marks etal. 1983; Torgesen 1983; Garvey and Tuason 1984; Thyer et al. 1985). The first panic attacks occurred before, or at least at the same time as the onset of the agoraphobic complaints (Roberts 1964; Garvey and Tuason 1984).


Dioxide Imipramine Agoraphobia 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bert Garssen

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