According to my experience, the two most common kinds of questions biology students ask when encountering a new structure or process are the following: What is the cause? What is the purpose (or function)? An answer to the two questions is often considered tantamount to an understanding of the phenomena. In this chapter, I shall examine the notion of “cause” and “causality,” whereas purpose and function shall be discussed in the next chapter.
KeywordsLiving System Traditional Notion Network Causality Stochastic Action Circular Causality
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