A Guide to Fracture Label: Cytochemical Labeling of Freeze-Fractured Cells
Freeze etching of biological specimens was devised to observe platinum/ carbon (Pt/C) casts of virus crystals frozen and crushed at low temperature (Steere 1957). The method was perfected by Moor and co-workers (1961), who modified high-vacuum equipment to allow “cutting” of specimens at controlled temperatures and at the low pressure required to obtain Pt/C replicas of high resolution. As designed by Moor and coworkers (1961), the freeze-etching apparatus was envisaged as a “freezing ultramicrotome” that produced a cut face of a frozen preparation. “Cutting” was followed by a period of sublimation (“etching”) thought necessary to reveal details of the microanatomy of cells (Moor et al. 1961; Moor and Mühlethaler 1963; Branton and Moor 1964). The first “freeze-fracture’ study was performed by Branton (1966), paradoxically still called “freeze etching” with “no etching.” For years, many researchers kept on submitting their freeze-frac-tured preparations to a period of “etching.” This procedure failed to reveal additional details because the specimens were impregnated in glycerol.
KeywordsCholesterol Entropy Glycerol Platinum Influenza
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