High Resolution Biological X-Ray Microanalysis of Diffusable Ions

  • D. E. Johnson
  • M. E. Cantino


Analytical Electron Microscopy (AEM) is developing as an important tool in the study of ion distributions and regulation in biological systems. This approach combines the spatial resolving power of electron microscope techniques with analytical instrumentation, in order to answer questions regarding elemental composition of specific subcellular regions. In this chapter we will limit our discussion to the study of distributions of diffusable elements and to high spatial resolution techniques (≈ 10 to 100 nm), which are typically applied using combined conventional transmission and scanning transmission electron imaging modes. Also, our discussion will be limited to one analytical technique, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS). Both the sensitivity and the limitations of the EDS technique will be discussed.


Acrosome Reaction Freezing Rate Minimum Detectable Concentration Rapid Freezing Electron Probe Analysis 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. E. Johnson
  • M. E. Cantino

There are no affiliations available

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