Criteria for the Diagnosis of Brain Death

  • R. A. Frowein
  • E. Hamel
  • K.-E. Richard
  • K. auf der Haar
Part of the Advances in Neurosurgery book series (NEURO, volume 14)

Abstract

Since the first observation of the syndrome of “coma dépassé” by MOLLARET and GOULON in 1959, 26 years ago, a second set of criteria for the diagnosis of brain death bas been presented in recent years, especially in Great Britain (SMITH 1979), in the USA (WALKER 1981, LYNN 1981), by the Bundesärztekammer (BÄK) in Germany (WOLFF and KUHLENDAHL 1982), and in Switzerland (CHIOLERO et al. 1983).

Keywords

Dioxide Ischemia Respiration Neurol Meningioma 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Adelt, A., Buchner, A., Ferbert, A., Hacke, W.: Bedeutung der frü-hen akustisch evozierten Potentiale in der Intensiv-Überwachung. 36. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Neurochirurgie, Berlin, 12.-15. Mai 1985, Vortrag 82Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bennett, D.A.: The EEG in determination of brain death. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 315, 110–120 (1978)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chartrian, G.E.: Electrophysiologic evaluation of brain death: a critical appraisal. In: Aminoff, J.M. (ed.) Electrodiagnosis in clinical neurology. Churchill Livingstone, New York Edinburgh London 1980, pp. 525–588Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chiolero, R., Deonna, T., Despland, P.A., Perret, C., Regli, R., de Tribolet, N.: Richtlinien für die Definition und die Diagnose des Todes. Schweizerische Ärztezeitung 64/21 810–811 (1983)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ferbert, A.: Neurologenkongreß, Heidelberg 1984Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Frowein, R.A., Pohl, F.: Klinische Beobachtungen bei zerebralen Zirkulationsstillständen und Hirntod-Syndrom. In: Bushe, K.A. (ed.) Fortschritte auf dem Gebiete der Neurochirurgie. Hippokrates, Stuttgart 1970, pp. 24–29Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Frowein, R.A., Richard, K.-E., Hamel, E.: Probleme des Hirntodes. Neurologenkongreß, Heidelberg 1984Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Haupt, W.F.: Kraniale Muskelaktivität beim dissoziierten Hirntod. Nervenarzt (to be published) (1985)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hirsch, H., Kubicki, S., Kugler, J., Penin, H.: Empfehlungen der Deutschen EEG-Gesellschaft zur Bestimmung der Todeszeit. Z. Elek-troenz. Elektromyographie 1, 53–54 (1970)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hughes, J.R.: Limitations of the EEG in coma and brain death. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 316, 121–136 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Klug, N.: Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in syndromes of de-cerebration, the bulbar syndrome and in central death. J. Neurol. 227, 219–228 (1982)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lynn, J.: Guidelines for the determination of death. President’s Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems, Washington 1981Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mollaret, P., Goulon, M.: Le coma dépassé. Rev. Neurol. 101, 3–15 (1959)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pallis, C: Brain death and the EEC The Lancet 15 1085–1086 (1980)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pallis, C: ABC of brain stem death. British Medical Journal 286, 39; 123–124, 209–210; 284–287 (1983)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pitts, L.H.: Apnea testing in diagnosis of brain death. J. Neuro-surg. 57(9), 433 (1982)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ropper, A.H., Kennedy, S.K., Russel, L.: Apnea testing in the diagnosis of brain death. Clinical and physiological observations. J. Neurosurg. 55, 942–946 (1981)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Smith of Marlow, Lord.: The removal of cadaveric organs for transplantation. A code of practice. Health Departments of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Oct. 1979Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Starr, A.: Auditory brainstem responses in brain death. Brain 99, 543–554 (1976)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stockard, J.J.: Basics of brainstem auditory evoked response interpretation in neurologic disorders (Outline). In: Aminoff, J.M. (ed.) Electrodiagnosis in clinical neurology. Churchill Livingstone, New York Edinburgh London 1980Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ullrich, A.: Neurologenkongreß, Heidelberg 1984Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Walker, E.: Cerebral death. Urban &Schwarzenberg, Baltimore Munchen 1981Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Walker, E.: Brain death. Neurologenkongreß, Heidelberg 1984Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wolff, H.P., Kuhlendahl, H.: Kriterien des Hirntodes. Deutsches Ärzteblatt - Ärztliche Mitteilungen 14, 45–55 (1982)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. A. Frowein
    • 1
  • E. Hamel
    • 1
  • K.-E. Richard
    • 1
  • K. auf der Haar
    • 1
  1. 1.Neurochirurgische Universitätsklinik KölnKöln 41Germany

Personalised recommendations