Prevention of Atopy: Neonatal Aspects

  • Robert N. Hamburger
  • Seth M. Asser
Conference paper

Abstract

The allergy-prone human infant fortunately differs from other small mammals with regard to early sensitization. It has been reported by Jarrett (1977) that ingestion of low antigen doses predisposes to IgE production in rodents. This observation led to the hypothesis that breast-fed human infants “denied access to large doses of food antigens in infancy” would be more prone to IgE sensitization to those foods in a manner similar to that observed in rodents (Gerrard 1979). That this is not the case is evidenced by double-blind or controlled studies revealing a lowered incidence of IgE-mediated allergic disease in breast-fed human infants compared with infants fed with cow’s milk formula (Hamburger and Orgel 1976a, b; Matthew et al. 1977; Ziering et al. 1979; Hide and Buyer 1981; Mellon et al. 1983), confirming the earlier clinical observations of Grulee and Sanford (1936) and Glazer and Johnstone (1953). Furthermore, the longer and more exclusive the breast feeding, the lower the incidence of sensitization and allergic disease (Orgel et al. 1975; Orgel and Hamburger 1976; Saarinen et al. 1979; Hamburger et al. 1983), the lower the total IgE level, and the lower the specific IgE and IgG antibody to cow’s milk proteins and to egg proteins observed (Hamburger 1981; Hamburger et al. 1983; Hamburger 1984). The issue, however, is not yet resolved, with other studies (Halpern et al. 1973; Ferguson et al. 1983) revealing no difference in the incidence of allergic diseases in infants fed cow’s milk or soybean formulas vs breast feeding, and Björksten and Juto (1983) and Björksten and Saarinen (1978) reporting increased cow’s milk sensitization in breast-fed babies.

Keywords

Corn Dust Mold Rhinitis Bedding 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Asser SM, Hamburger RN (1985) Atopic sensitization of the fetus and newborn in relation to the development of the human immune system. In: Milunsky A, Freidman EA, Gluck L (eds) Advances in perinatal medicine. Plenum, New York, p 299.Google Scholar
  2. Asser SM, Heredia HM, Hamburger RN (1984) Desarrollo y prevencion de alergia atopica. Alergia 31: 81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Bazaral M, Hamburger RN (1972) Standardization and stability of immunoglobulin E (IgE). J Allergy Clin Immunol 49: 189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bazaral M, Orgel HA, Hamburger RN (1971a) Absence of serum immunoglobulin E in newborns: Heterogeneity in time of synthesis in infants. Pediatr Res 5: 381.Google Scholar
  5. Bazaral M, Orgel HA, Hamburger (1971b) IgE levels in normal infants and mothers and an inheritance hypothesis. J Immunol 107: 791–795.Google Scholar
  6. Bazaral M, Orgel HA, Hamburger RN (1974) Genetics of IgE and allergy: Serum IgE levels in twins. J Allergy Clin Immunol 54: 288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bjorksten B, Juto P (1983) Allergy and cell mediated immunity in infants. In: Businco L (ed) Advances in pediatric allergy. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, p 19.Google Scholar
  8. Bjorksten F, Saarigen UM (1978) IgE to cow’s milk in infants fed breast-milk and formulas. Lancet 3: 624–625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Croner S, Kjellman NIM, Eriksson B, Roth A (1973) Development of childhood allergy in infants fed breast, soy or cow’s milk. J Allergy Clin Immunol 51: 139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ferguson DM, Horwood LJ, Shannon F (1983) Asthma and infant diet. Arch Dis Child 58: 48–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gerrard JW (1979) Allergy in breast fed babies to ingredients in breast milk. Ann Allergy 42: 69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Glaser J, Johnston DE (1953) Prophylaxis of allergic disease in the newborn. JAMA 153: 620.Google Scholar
  13. Grulee CG, Stanford NH (1936) The influence of breast and artificial feeding on infantile eczema. J Pediatr 9: 223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Halpern SR, Seilars WA, Johnson RB, Anderson DW, Saperstein S, Reisch JR (1973) Development of childhood allergy in infants fed breast, soy or cow’s milk. J Allergy Clin Immunol 51: 139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hamburger RN (1973) Niveles de immunoglobulina e herencia a la alergia e immunidad a los helmintos. Boletin Medico de Hospital Infantil de Mexico 20: 309.Google Scholar
  16. Hamburger RN (1975) Peptide inhibition of the Prausnitz-Kustner reaction. Science 189: 389–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hamburger RN (1976) IgE and allergy. In: Barness LA (ed) Advances in pediatrics. Year Book Medical Publishers, Chicago, p 95.Google Scholar
  18. Hamburger RN (1979) Prophylaxis of atopic asthma in the first two years of life. Allergol et Immunopathol 72: 71.Google Scholar
  19. Hamburger RN (1980) The genetic implication of positive RAST in low IgE individuals. Immunol Allergy Pract 2: 182.Google Scholar
  20. Hamburger RN (1981) Development of atopic allergy in children. In: Johansson SGO (ed) Diagnosis and treatment of IgE-mediated diseases. Excerpta Medica, Amsterdam, p 30.Google Scholar
  21. Hamburger RN (1982) Immunogenetics of IgE provides predictive value for the development of allergy. Ann Allergy 49: 9–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Hamburger RN (1983) New experimental approaches to the therapy of atopic diseases. Ann Allergy 50: 291.Google Scholar
  23. Hamburger RN (1984) Diagnosis of food allergies and intolerance in the study of prophylaxis and control groups in infants. Annates Nestle 42: 54.Google Scholar
  24. Hamburger RN, Heller S, Mellon MH, O’Connor RD (1983) Current status of the clinical and immunologic consequences of a prototype allergic disease prevention program. Ann Allergy 51: 281–290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Hamburger RN, Orgel Ha (1976a) The prophylaxis of allergy in infants debate. Pediatr Res 10: 387.Google Scholar
  26. Hamburger RN, Orgel HA (1976b) Prophylaxis of allergy. West J Med 125: 215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Hamburger RN, Orgel HA (1982) Transfused immunoglobulin E in newborns. J Allergy Clin Immunol 70: 143–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hide DW, Buyer BM (1981) Clinical manifestations of allergy related to breast and cow’s milk feeding. Arch Dis Child 56: 172–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jarrett EEE (1977) Acitvation of IgE regulator mechanisms by transmucosal absorption of antigen. Lancet 2: 223–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kjellman NIM (1976a) Immunoglobulin E and atopic allergy in childhood. Thesis, Linkoping University, Sweden.Google Scholar
  31. Kjellman NIM (1976b) Predictive value of high IgE levels in children. Acta Paediatr Scand 65: 465–471.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kjellman NIM, Johansson SGO, Roth A (1976) Serum IgE levels in healthy children quantified by a sandwich technique (PRIST) Clin Allergy 6: 51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Matthew DK, Taylor B, Norman AP, Turner MW, Soothill JR (1977) Prevention of eczema. Lancet 1: 321–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mellon M, Heller S, O’Connor RD, Hamburger RN, Zeiger RS (1983) No increase in cow’s milk (CM) sensitization after delayed CM ingestion in infancy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 71: 40–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Michel FB, Bousquet J, Greillier P, Robinet-Levy M, Coulomb Y (1980) Comparison of cord blood immunoglobulin E concentration and maternal allergy for the prediction of atopic diseases in infancy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 65: 422.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. NIAID Task Force Report (1979) Asthma and other allergic diseases. US Department of HEW, Bethesda (NIH publication no. 79)Google Scholar
  37. O’Connor RD, Zeiger RS, Mellon MH, Heller S, Hamburger RN (1984) The occurrence of elevated cord sera IgE levels due to maternal blood admixture. NER Allergy Proc 5: 149.Google Scholar
  38. Orgel HA, Hamburger RN, Bazaral M, Gorrin H, Groshong T, Lenior M, Miller JR, Wallace W (1975) Development of IgE and allergy in infancy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 56: 296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Orgel HA, Lenior MA, Bazaral M (1974) Serum IgG, IgA, IgM and IgE levels and allergy in Filipino children in the United States. J Allergy Clin Immunol 53: 213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Prenner B, Rohr A, Cohen G, Sainz C (1984) Preliminary results of a multicenter study of the antiallergy pentapeptide “HEPP.” Ann Allergy 52: 240.Google Scholar
  41. Saarinen UM, Backman A, Kajosaari M, Siimes M (1979) Prolonged breast-feeding as prophylaxis for atopic disease. Lancet 2: 163–166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Saccar CL, McDowell LJ, Mansmann HC, Elvey SM, Robertson L, Bloom NR, Martynec DM (1985) Evaluation of HEPP in allergic rhinitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 75: 185.Google Scholar
  43. Samter M (1979) Allergy and clinical immunology: Fifty years from now. J Allergy Clin Immunol 64: 321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zeiger RS, Heller S, Mellon M, O’Connor RD, Hamburger RN (1986) Effectiveness of dietary control for preventing allergic disease during infancy. Ann Allergy (in press)Google Scholar
  45. Ziering RS, O’Connor RD, Mellon M, Cook DA, Tomaszewski M, Street DH, Hamburger RN (1979) University of California San Diego prophylaxis in infancy study: An interim report. J Allergy Clin Immunol 63: 199.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert N. Hamburger
    • 1
  • Seth M. Asser
    • 1
  1. 1.Pediatric Department, Immunology and Allergy Division/M009DUniversity of CaliforniaSan Diego La JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations