Darwinian Evolution in Ecosystems: A Survey of Some Ideas and Difficulties Together with Some Possible Solutions

  • Nils Chr. Stenseth
Part of the Biomathematics book series (BIOMATHEMATICS, volume 16)


Ecology, the biological science of environment, has not produced a synthesis of environment from its broad technical knowledge of influence of external parameters on organisms. Before Darwin (1859), environment was considered an organic whole. Everything in it made some contribution and has some meaning with respect to everything else. Darwin subscribed to this view, but his emphasis, and that of his followers, on the evolving organism struggling to survive, suppressed the exploration of holistic aspects of the origin of species that might have been developed. After Darwin, the organism came into great focus, first as a comparative anatomical entity, then later with physiological, cellular, molecular, behavioural, and genetic detail. In contrast, the organism’s environment blurred through relative inattention into a fuzzy generality. The result was two distinct things (dualism), organism and environment, supplanting the original unified organism—environment whole (synergism). (Patten, 1982).


Natural Selection Fossil Record Density Dependence Replicator Dynamic Mutant Strategy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alberch, P. (1980) Ontogenesis and morphological diversification. Am. Zool. 20: 653–67.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, P.M. (1976) Evolution, population dynamics and stability. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sei. (USA) 73: 665–8.MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnold, V.I. (1973) Ordinary Differential Equations ( Cambridge, MA: MIT Press).MATHGoogle Scholar
  4. von Baer, K.E. (1828) Uber Entwicklungsgeschichte der Tiere. Beobeachtung und Reflexion ( Königsberg: Bornträger).Google Scholar
  5. Barlow, G.W. et al. (1984) Open peer commentary — 18 separate replies to Maynard Smith’s (1984) article. Behav. Brain Sci. 7: 101–17.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beddington, J.R., and Lawton, J.H. (1978) On the structure and behaviour of ecosystems. Colloque CS, suppl. no 8; 39: 39–43.Google Scholar
  7. Bonner, J.T. (Ed) (1982) Evolution and Development ( New York: Springer Verlag ).Google Scholar
  8. Bowler, P.J. (1975) The changing meaning of ‘evolution’. J. Hist. Ideas 36: 95–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brooks, D.R. (1983) What’s going on in evolution? A brief guide to some new ideas in evolutionary theory. Can. J. Zool. 61: 2637–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bull, J.J. (1983) Evolution of Sex Determining Mechanisms ( Menlo Park, CA: Benjamin/Cummings Publ. Co.).Google Scholar
  11. Calow, P. (1983) Evolutionary Principles ( Glasgow: Blackie).Google Scholar
  12. Carroll, L. (1871) Through the Looking-Glass and what Alice found there ( Reprinted in ‘Alice in Wonderland’, W.W. Norton Co. Inc. NY, 1971 ).Google Scholar
  13. Case, T.J. (1982) Coevolution in resource-limited competition communities. Theor. pop. Biol. 21: 69–91.MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Case, T.J. and Casten, R.G. (1979) Global stability and multiple domains of attraction in ecological systems. Am. Nat. 113: 705–14.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Case, T.J. and Sidel, R. (1983) Pattern and change in the structure of model and natural communities. Evolution 37: 832–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Charlesworth, B. (1980) Evolution in Age Structured Populations ( Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press).MATHGoogle Scholar
  17. Charlesworth, B., Lande, R., and Slatkin, M. (1982) A neo-Darwinian commentary on macroevolution. Evolution 36: 474–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Charnov, E.L. (1982) Parent—offspring conflict over reproductive effort. Am. Nat. 119: 736–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Colbert, E.H. (1969) Evolution of the Vertebrates, 2nd edn ( New York: Wiley).Google Scholar
  20. Crick, F.H.C. (1958) The biological replication of macromolecules. Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol. 12: 138–63.Google Scholar
  21. Crick, F.H.C. (1970) Central Dogma of molecular biology. Nature 227: 561–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Crick, F.H.C. (1973) Project K: The complete solution of E. coli. Perspectives in Biol, and Medicine 17: 67–70.Google Scholar
  23. Darwin, C. (1859) On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life ( London: John Murray).Google Scholar
  24. Dawkins, R. (1976) The Selfish Gene ( Oxford: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
  25. Dawkins, R. (1982) The Extended Phenotype ( San Francisco: Freeman).Google Scholar
  26. Dawkins, R. and Krebs, J.R. (1979) Arms races between and within species. Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. B 205: 489–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Diamond, J.M. (1969) Avifaunal equilibria and species turnover rates on the Channel Island of California. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sri. (USA) 64: 57–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dobzhansky, T., Ayala, F.J., Stebbins, G.L., and Valentine, J.W. (1977) Evolution ( San Francisco: Freeman).Google Scholar
  29. Eldredge, N. and Gould, S.J. (1972) Punctuated equilibria: an alternative to phyletic gradualism, in T.J.M. Schopf (Ed) Models in Paleobiology ( San Francisco: Freeman ) pp 82–115.Google Scholar
  30. Elton, C.S. (1927) Animal Ecology ( London: Sidgewick & Jackson).Google Scholar
  31. Elton, C.S. (1958) The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants ( London: Methuen).Google Scholar
  32. Fisher, R.A. (1930) The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection ( Oxford: Clarendon Press).MATHGoogle Scholar
  33. Fredga, K. (1983) Aberrant sex chromosome mechanisms in mammals. Evolutionary aspects. Differentiation 23 (SuppL): S20–S30.Google Scholar
  34. Fredga, K., Gropp, A., Winking, H., and Frank, F. (1976) Fertile XX- and XY-type females in the wood lemming (Myopus schisticolor). Nature 261: 225–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fredga, K., Gropp, A., Winking, H., and Frank, F. (1977) A hypothesis explaining the exceptional sex ratio in the wood lemming (Myopus schisticolor). Hereditas 85: 101–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Futuyma, D.J. (1979) Evolutionary Biology ( Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Assoc.).Google Scholar
  37. Goldschmidt, R.B. (1940) The Material Basis of Evolution ( New Haven, CT: Yale University Press).Google Scholar
  38. Gould, S.J. (1980) Is a new and general theory of evolution emerging? Paleobiology 6: 119–30.Google Scholar
  39. Gould, S.J. (1981) Paleontology plus ecology as paleobiology, in R.M. May (Ed) Theoretical Ecology: Principles and Applications, 2nd edn ( Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Assoc. ) pp 295–317.Google Scholar
  40. Gould, S.J. (1982) Darwinism and the expansion of evolutionary theory. Science 216: 380–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gould, S.J. (1983) Punctuated equilibria in the fossil record (a reply). Science 219: 439–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gould, S.J. and Eldredge, N. (1977) Punctuated equilibria: the tempo and mode of evolution reconsidered. Paleobiology 3: 115–51.Google Scholar
  43. Grinnell, J. (1917) The niche relationships of California thrasher. Ank 21: 364–82.Google Scholar
  44. Grinnell, J. (1928) The presence and absence of animals. Univ. Calif. Chronicle 30: 429–50.Google Scholar
  45. Haeckel, E. (1866) Generelle Morphologie der Organismen, 2 vols ( Berlin: G. Reimer).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Haldane, J.B.S. (1932) The Causes of Evolution (London: Longmans, Green & Co.).Google Scholar
  47. Hallam, A.A. (1976) The Red Queen dethroned. Nature 259: 12–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hamilton, W.D. (1964a) The genetical evolution of social behaviour I. J. theor. Biol. 7: 1–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hamilton, W.D. (1964b) The genetical evolution of social behaviour II. J. theor. Biol. 7: 17–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hamilton, W.D. (1967) Extraordinary sex ratios. Science 156: 477–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Heuch, I. (1978) Maintenance of butterfly populations with all-female broods under recurrent extinction and recolonization. J. theor. Biol. 75: 115–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hickey, L.J., West, R.M., Dawson, M.R., and Choi, D.K. (1983) Arctic terrestrial biota: paleomagnetic evidence of age disparity with mid-northern latitudes during the late coctaceous and early tertiary. Science 221: 1153–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hutchinson, G.E. (1957) A Treatise on Limnology; Vol. 1, Geography, Physics and Chemistry ( New York: Wiley).Google Scholar
  54. Jablonski, D., Sepkoski, J.J., Bottjer, D.J., and Sheehan, P.M. (1983) Onshore-offshore patterns in the evolution of Phanerozoic shelf communities. Science 222: 1123–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Johannsen, W. (1909) Elemente der exaJcten Erblichkeitslehre ( Jena: Gustav Fisher).Google Scholar
  56. Johnson, L. (1981) The thermodynamic origin of ecosystems. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 38: 571–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kalela, O. and Oksala, T. (1966) Sex ratio in the wood lemming, Myopus schisticolor (Lilljeb.) in nature and captivity. Ann. Univ. Turkuensis, Ser. AII, 37: 1–24.Google Scholar
  58. Kerner, E.H. (1957) A statistical mechanistics of interacting biological species. Bull. Math. Biophysics 19: 121–46.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kerner, E.H. (1959) Further considerations of the statistical mechanistics of biological associations. Bull. Math. Biophysics 21: 217–35.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kimura, M. (1983) The Neutral Theory of Molecular Evolution ( Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  61. Kostitzin, V.A. (1938) Equations différentielles générales du problême de sélection naturelle. Comptes rendus 203: 156–7.Google Scholar
  62. Lamarck, J.B. (1809) Philosophie Zoologique ( Paris: Librairie Schleicher Frères).Google Scholar
  63. Lander, G.V. (1982) Historical biology and the problem of design. J. theor. Biol. 97: 57–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lawlor, L.R. and Maynard Smith, J. (1976) The coevolution and stability of competing species. Am. Nat. 110: 79–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. León, J.A. (1976) Life histories as adaptive strategies. J. theor. Biol. 60: 301–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Levins, R. (1968) Evolution in Changing Environments (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
  67. Lewontin, R. (1974) The Genetical Basis of Evolutionary Change ( New York: Columbia University Press).Google Scholar
  68. Lewontin, R. (1979) Fitness, survival and optimality, in D.J. Horn, G.R. Stairs, and R.D. Mitchell (Eds) Analysis of Ecological Systems. ( Columbia: Ohio State University Press ) pp 3–21.Google Scholar
  69. Lundberg, S. and Stenseth, N.C. (1985) Coevolution of competing species: convergent and divergent evolution and crossover in character displacement. Theor. pop. Biol., (in press).Google Scholar
  70. MacArthur, R.M. (1972) Geographical Ecology: Patterns in the Distribution of Species ( New York: Harper & Row).Google Scholar
  71. MacArthur, R.M. and Levins, R. (1967) The limiting similarity, and character displacement in a patchy environment. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 51: 1207–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. MacArthur, R.M. and Wilson, E.O. (1967) The Theory of Island Biogeography ( Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
  73. Maynard Smith, J. (1960) Continuous, quantized and modal variation. Proc. Boy. Soc., Lond. B 152: 397–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Maynard Smith, J. (1969) The status of neo-Darwinism, in C.H. Waddington (Ed) Towards a Theoretical Biology, Vol. Z, Sketches ( Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press ) pp 82–9.Google Scholar
  75. Maynard Smith, J. (1972) On Evolution ( Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press).Google Scholar
  76. Maynard Smith, J. (1974) Models in Ecology ( Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press).MATHGoogle Scholar
  77. Maynard Smith, J. (1975) The Theory of Evolution, 3rd edn ( Harmondsworth: Pengu in Books).Google Scholar
  78. Maynard Smith, J. (1976a) A comment on the Red Queen. Am. Nat. 110: 331–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Maynard Smith, J. (1976b) Group selection. Quart. Rev. Biol. 51: 227–83.Google Scholar
  80. Maynard Smith, J. (1978a) Optimization theory in evolution. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst, 9: 31–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Maynard Smith, J. (1978b) The Evolution of Sex ( Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  82. Maynard Smith, J. (1982a) Introduction, in J. Maynard Smith (Ed) Evolution Now ( London: MacMillan ) pp 1–6.Google Scholar
  83. Maynard Smith, J. (1982b) Evolution and the Theory of Games ( Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.).MATHGoogle Scholar
  84. Maynard Smith, J. (1982c) Evolution — sudden or gradual? (Introduction to ch. 5) in J. Maynard Smith (Ed) Evolution Now ( London: Macmillan ) pp 125–8.Google Scholar
  85. Maynard Smith, J. (1983) Evolution and development, in B.C. Goodwin, N. Holder, and C.C. Wylie (Eds) Development and Evolution ( Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press ) pp 33–46.Google Scholar
  86. Maynard Smith, J. (1984) Game theory and the evolution of behaviour. Behav. Brain Sci.,7: 94–101 (see reply to “Open Peer Commentary” pp. 117–125).Google Scholar
  87. Maynard Smith, J. and Price, G.R. (1973) The logic of animal conflict. Nature 246: 15–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Maynard Smith, J. and Sondhi, K.C. (1960) The genetics of pattern. Genetics 45: 1039–50.Google Scholar
  89. Maynard Smith, J. and Sondhi, K.C. (1961) The arrangement of bristles in Drosophila. J. Embryol. exp. Morph. 9: 661–72.Google Scholar
  90. Maynard Smith, J. and Stenseth, N.C. (1978) On the evolutionary stability of the female- biased sex ratio in the wood lemming (Myopus schisticolor): the effect of inbreeding. Heredity 41: 205–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Mayr, E. (1961) Cause and effect in biology. Science 134: 1501–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Monod, J. (1971) Chance and Necessity: an Essay on the Natural Philosophy of Modern Biology ( New York: Knopfer).Google Scholar
  93. Odum, E.P. (1969) The strategy of ecosystem development. Science 164: 262–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Odum, E.P. (1971) Fundamentals of Ecology, 3rd edn ( Philadelphia: Saunders).Google Scholar
  95. Orians, G.H. and Paine, R.T. (1983) Convergent evolution at the community level, in D.J. Futuyma and M. Slatkin (Eds) Coevolution ( Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Assoc. ) pp 431–59.Google Scholar
  96. Oster, G. and Alberch, P. (1982) Evolution and bifurcation of developmental programs. Evolution 36: 444–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Oster, G., Odell, G., and Alberch, P. (1980) Mechanics, morphogenesis and evolution. Lect Math. Life Sci. 13: 165–255.MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  98. Patten, B.C. (1975) Ecosystem linearization: an evolutionary design problem. Am. Nat. 109: 529–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Patten, B.C. (1978) Systems approach to the concept of environment. Ohio J. Sd. 78: 206–22.Google Scholar
  100. Patten, B.C. (1981) Environs: the superniches of ecosystems. Am. Zool. 21: 845–52.Google Scholar
  101. Patten, B.C. (1982) Environs: relativistic elementary particles for ecology. Am. Nat. 119: 179–219.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Patten, B.C. (1983) Linearity enigmas in ecology. Ecol. Modelling 18: 155–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Patten, B.C. (1985) Further developments toward a theory of the quantitative importance of indirect effects in ecosystems, in B.C. Patten (Ed) System Analysis and Simulation in Ecology, vol. 00 (in press).Google Scholar
  104. Patten, B.C. and Auble, G.T. (1980) Systems approach to the concept of niche. Synthese 43: 155–81.MathSciNetMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Patten, B.C. and Auble, G.T. (1981) Systems theory of the ecological niche. Am. Nat. 118: 345–69.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Patten, B.C. and Odum, E.P. (1981) The cybernetic nature of ecosystems. Am. Nat. 118: 886–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Patten, B.C., Bosserman, R.W., Finn, J.T., and Cale, W.G. (1976) Propagation of cause in ecosystems, in B.C. Patten (Ed) System Analysis and Simulation in Ecology, Vol. 4 ( New York: Academic Press ) pp 457–579.Google Scholar
  108. Patterson, C. (1983) How does phylogeny differ from ontogeny? in B.C. Goodwin, N. Holder, and C.C. Wylie (Eds) Development and Evolution ( Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press ) pp 1–32.Google Scholar
  109. Pianka, E.R. (1978) Evolutionary Ecology ( New York: Harper & Row).Google Scholar
  110. Pianka, E.R. (1980) Guild structure in desert lizards. Oikos 35: 194–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Reed, J. and Stenseth, N.C. (1984) On evolutionary stable strategies. J. theor. Biol. 108: 491–508.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Roughgarden, J. (1974) Species packing and the competition function with illustrations from coral reef fish. Theor. pop. Biol. 5: 163–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Roughgarden, J. (1979) Theory of Population Genetics and Evolutionary Ecology: An Introduction ( New York: Macmillan).Google Scholar
  114. Roughgarden, J. (1983a) The theory of coevolution, in D.J. Futuyma and M. Slatkin (Eds) Coevolution ( Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Assoc. ) pp 33–64.Google Scholar
  115. Roughgarden, J. (1983b) Coevolution between competitors, in D.J. Futuyma and M. Slatkin (Eds) Coevolution ( Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Assoc. ) pp 383–403.Google Scholar
  116. Roughgarden, J., Herckel, D., and Fuentes, E.R. (1983) Coevolutionary theory and the biogeography and community structure of Anolis, in R. Huey, E.R. Pianka, and T. Schoener (Eds) Lizard Ecology: Studies of a Model Organism ( Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press ) pp 371–410.Google Scholar
  117. Schaffer, W.M. (1977) Evolution, population dynamics, and stability. Theor. pop. Biol. 11: 326–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Schaffer, W.M. and Rosenzweig, M.L. (1978) Homage to the Red Queen. I. Coevolution of predators and their victims. Theor. pop. Biol. 14: 135–57.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Schuster, P. and Sigmund, K. (1983) Replicator dynamics. J. theor. Biol. 100: 533–8.MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Schopf, T.J.M. (1982) A critical assessment of punctuated equilibria. I. Duration of taxa. Evolution 36: 1144–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Schopf, T.J.M. and Hoffman, A. (1983) Punctuated equilibria in the fossil record. Science 219: 438–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Sharpe, F.R. and Lotka, A.J. (1911) A problem in age distribution. Phil. Mag. 21: 435–8.Google Scholar
  123. Sigmund, K. (1985) A survey of replicator equations (this volume, Chapter 4).Google Scholar
  124. Simpson, G.G. (1953) The Major Features of Evolution ( Columbia: Columbia University Press).Google Scholar
  125. Slatkin, M. and Maynard Smith, J. (1979) Models of coevolution. Quart. Rev. Biol. 54: 233–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sondhi, K.C. (1962) The evolution of pattern. Evolution. 16: 186–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Stanley, S.M. (1975) A theory of evolution above the species level. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (USA) 72: 646–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Stanley, S.M. (1979) Macroevolution: Pattern and Process ( San Francisco: Freeman).Google Scholar
  129. Stanley, S.M. (1982) Macroevolution and the fossil record. Evolution 36: 460–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Stanley, S.M., van Valkenburgh, B., and Steneck, R.S. (1983) Coevolution and the fossil record, in D.J. Futuyma and M. Slatkin (Eds) Coevolution ( Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Assoc. ) pp 328–49.Google Scholar
  131. Stebbins, G.L. and Ayala, F.J. (1981) Is a new evolutionary synthesis necessary? Science 213: 967–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Steel, E.J. (1979) Somatic Selection and Adaptive Evolution ( Toronto: Williams-Wallace Prod. Intern).Google Scholar
  133. Stenseth, N.C. (1979) Where have all the species gone? On the nature of extinction and the Red Queen Hypothesis. Oikos 33: 196–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Stenseth, N.C. (1983a) A coevolutionary theory for communities and food web configurations. Oikos 41: 487–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Stenseth, N.C. (1983b) Causes and consequences of dispersal in small mammals, in I.R. Swingland and P.J. Greenwood (Eds) The Ecology of Animal Movement ( Oxford: Oxford University Press ) pp 63–101.Google Scholar
  136. Stenseth, N.C. (1984a) Testing evolutionary predictions: a reply to Bleken and Ugland. Oikos 43: 126–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Stenseth, N.C. (1984b) Fitness, population growth rate and evolution in plant-grazer systems: a reply to Nur. Oikos 42: 414–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Stenseth, N.C. (1984c) Why mathematical models in evolutionary ecology?, in J.H. Cooley and F.B. Golley (Eds) Trends in Ecological Research for the 1980s ( New York: Plenum Press ) pp 239–87.Google Scholar
  139. Stenseth, N.C. (1985a) Darwinian evolution in ecosystems — the Red Queen view, in P.J. Greenwood, M. Slatkin, and P. Harvey (Eds) Evolution (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press) (in press).Google Scholar
  140. Stenseth, N.C. (1985b) The tropics: cradle or museum? Oikos (in press).Google Scholar
  141. Stenseth, N.C. (1985c) A new hypothesis for explaining the maintenance of the all-female broods in the African butterfly Acraea encedon (in review).Google Scholar
  142. Stenseth, N.C. (1985d) Origin of species in physically stressed environments (in review).Google Scholar
  143. Stenseth, N.C. and Kirkendall, L.R. (1985) On the ecological and evolutionary stability of pseudogamy; the effect of niche-overlap between sexual and asexual females (in review).Google Scholar
  144. Stenseth, N.C. and Maynard Smith, J. (1984) Coevolution in ecosystems: Red Queen evolution or stasis? Evolution 38: 870–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Stenseth, N.C., Kirkendall, L.R., and Moran, N. (1985) On the evolution of pseudogamy. Evolution (in press).Google Scholar
  146. Thom, R. (1975) Structural Stability and Morphogenesis: An Outline of a General Theory of Models ( Reading, MA: W.A. Benjamin).MATHGoogle Scholar
  147. Thorsrud, O. and Stenseth, N.C. (1985) On the evolutionary stability of the female biased sex ratio in the wood lemming (Myopus schisticolor) and the collared lemming (Dicrostonyx groenlandicus): the effect of dispersal in a patchy environment (manuscript for publication).Google Scholar
  148. Turing, A.M. (1952) The chemical basis for morphogenesis. Phil. Trans. Boy. Soc. Ser. B 237: 37–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Tyler, M.J. (1983) Evolution of gastric brooding, Ch 10 in M.J. Tyler (Ed) The Gastric Brooding Frog ( London: Croom Helm ).Google Scholar
  150. Van Valen, L. (1973) A new evolutionary law. Evol. Theory 1: 1–30.Google Scholar
  151. Van Valen, L. (1976) The Red Queen lives. Nature 260: 575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Van Valen, L. (1977) The Red Queen. Am. Nat. 111: 809 - 10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Weismann, A. (1886) Essays upon Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems ( Oxford: Clarendon Press).Google Scholar
  154. Weismann, A. (1893) The Germ-Plasma: A Theory of Heredity ( Oxford: Clarendon Press).Google Scholar
  155. Whittaker, R.H. (1969) Evolution of diversity in plant communities. Brookhaven Symp. Biol. 22: 178–96.Google Scholar
  156. Williamson, P.G. (1981a) Paleontological documentation of speciation in Cenozoic molluscs from Turkana Basin. Nature 293: 437–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Williamson, P.G. (1981b) Morphological stasis and developmental constraints: real problems for neo-Darwinism. Nature 294: 214–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Wilson, D.S. (1980) The Natural Selection of Populations and Communities (Menlo Park, CA.: Benjamin/Cummings).Google Scholar
  159. Wolpert, L. (1969) Positional information and the spatial pattern of cellular differentiation. J. theor. Biol. 25: 1–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Wolpert, L. (1983) Constancy and change in the development and evolution of pattern, in B.C. Goodwin, N. Holder, and C.C. Wylie (Eds) Development and Evolution ( Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press ) pp 47–58.Google Scholar
  161. Zinmeister, W.J. and Feldman, R.M. (1984) Cenozoic high latitude heterogeneity of southern hemisphere marine fauna. Science 224: 281–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nils Chr. Stenseth

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations