Advertisement

Deposition and Forest Canopy Interactions of Airborne Nitrate

  • S. E. Lindberg
  • G. M. Lovett
  • K-J. Meiwes
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 16)

Abstract

Preliminary data suggest that atmospheric deposition of nitrate is generally higher to West German forests than to forests in the United States; however, many of these data are based only on bulk deposition. In two detailed studies of deposition processes in high- and low-elevation forests in the eastern United States, we quantified total wet plus dry deposition of nitrate using several approaches. Our data suggest that nitrate deposition by rain, particles, vapours, and cloud droplets significantly exceeds nitrate input measured in bulk deposition; hence, we cannot accurately determine current levels of input to many forests. Using data on the behaviour of deposited nitrate in the canopies of the two forests studied in detail, we estimated the magnitude of nitrate deposition not collected by bulk samplers used routinely in the Solling forest in West Germany. The results suggest that the unmeasured flux exceeds that measured as bulk deposition by factors of 1.3 to 6, depending on different assumptions. Calculation of deposition velocity indicates that this unmeasured fraction could be accounted for by dry deposition of nitric acid vapour or by deposition of fog or cloud droplets.

Keywords

Deposition Velocity Cloud Droplet Atmos Environ Bulk Deposition Bulk Precipitation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Appel BR, Tokiwa Y (1981) Atmospheric particle NO3 , sampling errors due to reactions with particulate and gaseous strong acids. Atmos Environ 15: 1087–1089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brimblecombe P, Stedman DH (1982) Historical evidence for a dramatic increase in the nitrate component of acid rain. Nature 298: 460–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carlisle A, Brown ES, White EJ (1966) The organic matter and nutrient elements in the precipitation beneath a sessile oak canopy. J Ecol 54: 87–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chamberlain AC (1966) Transport of Lycopodium spores and other small particles to rough surfaces. Proc R Soc Lond A296: 45–70Google Scholar
  5. Eberhardt PJ, Pritchett WL (1971) Foliar applications of N to slash pine seedlings. Plant Soil 23: 731–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fowler D (1980) Removal of sulphur and nitrogen compounds from the atmosphere in rain and by dry deposition. In: Drablos D, Tolan A (eds) Ecological impact of acid precipitation. SNSF Project, Oslo, Norway, p 23Google Scholar
  7. Friedland AJ, Gregory RA, Karenlampi L, Johnson AH (in press) Winter damage to foliage as a factor in red spruce decline. Can J For ResGoogle Scholar
  8. Galloway JN, Likens GE (1981) Acid precipitation: the importance of nitric acid. Atmos Environ 15: 1081–1085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Grennfelt P, Bengtson C, Skarby L (1980) An estimation of the atmospheric input of acidifying substances to a forest ecosystem. In: Hutchinson TC, Havas M (eds) Effects of acid precipitation on terrestrial ecosystems. Plenum, New York, p 29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hicks BB (1984) Dry deposition. In: The acidic phenomenon and its effects, vol 1, chapters 1–8, EPA 600/88–83-016A. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  11. Hosker RP, Lindberg SE (1982) Review article: atmospheric deposition and plant assimilation of airborne gases and particles. Atmos Environ 16: 889–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Huebert BJ (1983) Measurements of the dry-deposition flux of nitric acid vapour to grasslands and forests. In: Pruppacher HR, Semonin RG, Slinn WGN (eds) Precipitation scavenging, dry deposition, and resuspension. Elsevier, New York, p 785Google Scholar
  13. Johnson AH, Cowling EB (in press) Declining forests of the Federal Republic of Germany and the eastern United States: a summary of characteristics and hypotheses, Environ Sei TechnolGoogle Scholar
  14. Johnson AH, Siccama TG (1983) Acid deposition and forest decline. Environ Sei Technol 17: 294A-305ACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Johnson DW, Richter DD, Lovett GM, Lindberg SE (1985) The effects of atmospheric deposition on K, Ca, and Mg cycling in two forests. Can J For Res 15: 773–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kelly JM, Meagher JF (1985) Nitrogen input-ouput relationships for three forest sites in eastern Tennessee. Tennessee Valley Authority, Air Quality Branch, Muscle Shoals, AlabamaGoogle Scholar
  17. Lindberg SE (1982) Factors influencing the concentrations of trace metals, sulfate, and hydrogen ion in rain. Atmos Environ 16: 1701–1709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lindberg SE, Harriss RC (1981) The role of atmospheric deposition in an eastern United States deeiduous forest. Water Air Soil Pollut 15: 13–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lindberg SE, Lovett GM (1985) Field measurements of particle dry deposition rates to inert surfaces and leaves in a forest canopy. Environ Sei Technol 19: 238–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lindberg SE, Lovett GM, Richter DD, Johnson DW (1986) Atmospheric depositional canopy interactions of major ions in a forest. Science 231: 141–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lobel J, Thiel WR (eds) (1983) Acid preeipitation. Verein Deutscher Ingenieure, Dusseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany, p 165–172Google Scholar
  22. Lovett GM (1983) Atmospheric deposition to forests. In: Cronan CS (ed) Forest responses to aeidie deposition. Land and Water Resources Center, University of Maine, Orono, Maine, p 7Google Scholar
  23. Lovett GM, Lindberg SE (1984) Dry deposition and canopy exchange in a mixed oak forest determined from analysis of throughfall. J Appl Ecol 21: 1013–1028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lovett GM, Reiners WA, Olson RK (1982) Cloud droplet deposition in subalpine baisam fir forests: hydrological and chemical inputs. Science 218: 1303–1304PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lovett GM, Lindberg SE, Richter DD, Johnson DW (1985) The effects of acidic deposition on cation leaching from three deeiduous forest canopies. Can J For Res 15: 1055–1060CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Matzner E, Khanna PK, Meiwes KJ, Lindheim M, Prenzel J, Ulrich B (1982) Elementflusse in Waldokosystemen in Solling-Datendo-kumentation. Gottingen Bodenkundliche Berichle 71, Universität Gottingen, Federal Republic of GermanyGoogle Scholar
  27. NADP (National Atmospheric Deposition Program) (1985) Annual data summary of preeipitation chemistry in the United States. Lindberg SE, Bowersox V, Bigelow D, Knapp W, Olsen T (eds) National Atmospheric Deposition Program, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, ColoradoGoogle Scholar
  28. NAS (National Academy of Sciences) (1983) Acid deposition-atmospheric processes in eastern North America. National Academy Press, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  29. Richter DD, Johnson DW, Todd DE (1983) Atmospheric sulfur deposition, neutralization, and ion leaching in two deeiduous forests. J Environ Qual 12: 263–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Robinson E, Homolya, JB (1983) Natural and anthropogenic emissions. In: The acidic deposition phenomenon and its effects, critical assessment review papers, vol 1, chapter A-2, 600/8–83-016A. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  31. Shannon JD (1981) A model of regional long-term average sulfur atmospheric pollution, surface removal, and net horizontal flux. Atmos Environ 15: 689–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority) (1982) Ambient air quality monitoring System data summary, TVA/ONR/ARP-82/18. TVA (Monitoring Section), Muscle Shoals, AlabamaGoogle Scholar
  33. Ulrich B, Pankrath J (eds) (1983) Effects of aecumulation of air pollutants in forest ecosystems. Reidel, Dordrecht, HollandGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. E. Lindberg
    • 1
  • G. M. Lovett
    • 1
  • K-J. Meiwes
    • 2
  1. 1.Environmental Sciences DivisionOak Ridge National LaboratoryOak RidgeUSA
  2. 2.Institute of Soil Science and Forest NutritionUniversity of GöttingenGöttingenWest Germany

Personalised recommendations