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Responses of Forests in Decline to Experimental Fertilization

  • H. W. Zoettl
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 16)

Abstract

For several characteristic types of forest damage in SW-Germany, nutritional disturbances of the stands are evident from chemical soil properties, needle analysis data, and visible symptoms. Under the relatively low impact of acidic deposition in the study area recent drastic changes in soil conditions are not probable, but the measured higher ozone concentrations and acid fog may cause increased leaching of ions from the foliage. These losses may not be compensated by the trees where available reserves of the elements concerned are low in the rooted Substrate.

To test the role of the nutrient supply in these processes, a comprehensive programme of “diagnostic fertilization experiments” was started. Four experiments with Norway spruce are presented with the preliminary data. In two trials on very acid soils with extremely low base saturation, the gold-yellow-chlorosis of older needles was mainly due to magnesium deficiency. It disappeared after fertilizer application. One trial on soil with high calcium saturation but low potassium supply represents a different damage type with the symptoms of potassium deficiency. In the last trial on calcareous soil the trees were yellow-chlorotic in all needle age classes due to extreme deficiency of manganese. Also in these trials the response to the corresponding fertilization was clearly positive.

The results of these recent experiments and the chronological changes of the nutritional status of spruce stands within the last decades point out that nutrient deficiencies play a major role in the development of particular forest damage types.

Keywords

Forest Damage Damage Symptom Needle Loss Rooted Substrate Current Needle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. W. Zoettl
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Soil Science and Forest NutritionAlbert-Ludwig UniversityFreiburg i.Br.Federal Republic of Germany

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