Cadmium pp 1-31 | Cite as

The Estimation of Cadmium in Biological Samples

  • K. Matsumoto
  • K. Fuwa
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 80)

Abstract

Cadmium has a relatively low abundance in nature (the Clarke number is 5 × 10−5), but it has long been known because it is easily extracted from its ores. Although cadmium minerals are scarcely found in nature, it occurs widely by isomorphous replacement of zinc in sphalerite (Zn, Fe)S, which usually coexists with galena PbS. This substitution is due to the similar chemical properties of Zn and Cd, both in group lib. Zinc and lead are commonly recovered simultaneously by a blast furnace method. Cadmium is invariably a by-product and is usually separated from zinc by distillation or by precipitation from sulfate solutions by inc dust. The reaction corresponds to the following equation
$$\text{Zn} + \text{Cd}^{2 + }= \text{Zn}^{2 + }+ \text{Cd}\,\,\,\,\,E =+ 0.36\,\text{V}.$$

Keywords

Burner Dust Argon CdCl Epoxy 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bertin EP (1975) Principles and practice of X-ray spectrometric analysis. Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Harvey TC, McLellan JS, Thomas BJ, Fremlin JH (1975) Measurement of liver-cadmium concentrations in patients and industrial workers by neutron-activation analysis. Lancet 11:1269–1272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. L’vov BV (1970) Atomic absorption spectrochemical analysis. Hilger, LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. Sigel H (1979) Metal ions in biological systems, vol 9. Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Slavin W (1976) Atomic absorption spectroscopy. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Vartsky D, Ellis KJ, Chen NS, Cohn SH (1977) A facility for in vivo measurement of kidney and liver cadmium by neutron capture prompt gamma ray analysis. Phys Med Biol 22:1085–1096PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Welz B (1976) Atomic absorption spectroscopy. Verlag Chemie, WeinheimGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Matsumoto
  • K. Fuwa

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations