Parallel Processes in Oculomotor Control

Conference paper
Part of the Springer Series in Synergetics book series (SSSYN, volume 31)


With the availability of VLSI technology to build supercomputers with a large number of interacting processors, the brain-computer analogy has found a revived interest. The RAM machine by von Neumann, [1] with a global memory for data and programs and with control by a single program counter (which holds the address of the next instruction and is updated in a regular cycle), cannot serve as a useful model for the brain. Much more interesting are parallel computers, where the architecture depends strongly on the algorithms to be performed. The ultracomputer model [2] uses a large number N of identical processors which are locally connected to a few nearest neighbor processors, e.g. in a higher dimensional cubic lattice. Such an architecture has a programming style, in which periods of independent parallel computations alternate with periods of interprocessor communication and data shuffling. For certain problems algorithms can be developed where an N-processor ultracomputer is N times faster than a RAM machine. Such ultracomputers are also structurally very different from the brain. Closest to the brain’s mode of operation is the data flow concept [3].


Oculomotor System Velocity Storage Burst Generator Vestibular Ganglion Alert Monkey 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    J. von Neumann, “Collected Works”, Vol. 5, Pergamon London, 1963Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    J.T. Schwartz, ACM Trans Prog Lang Sys 2, 484 (1980)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    J.B. Dennis, IEEE Computer, Nov 1980, p. 48Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    G.M. Shepherd, “The Synaptic Organization of the Brain”, Oxford, 1978Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    V.B. Mountcastle, “An organizing principle for cerebral function: the unit module and the distributed system”. In “The Mindful Brain” (G.M. Edelman, V.B. Mountcastle eds) MIT Press Cambridge (1978)Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    K. Hepp, V. Henn, “Neurodynamics of the oculomotor system: space-time recording and a non-equilibrium phase transition”. In “Synergetics of the Brain” (E. Başar, H. Flohr, H. Haken, A.J. Mandell eds) Springer, Berlin (1983)Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    O. Hikosaka, R.H. Wurtz, J. Neurophysiol. 52, 266 (1984)Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    F.P. Ottes, J.A.M. van Gisbergen, J.J. Eggermont, Vision Res 24, 1169 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9a]
    O. Hikosaka, R.H. Wurtz, J. Neurophysiol. 49, 1230, (1983)Google Scholar
  10. [9b]
    O. Hikosaka, R.H. Wurtz, J. Neurophysiol 49 1254, (1983)Google Scholar
  11. [9c]
    O. Hikosaka, R.H. Wurtz, J. Neurophysiol 49 1268, (1983)Google Scholar
  12. [9d]
    O. Hikosaka, R.H. Wurtz, J. Neurophysiol 49 1285 (1983);Google Scholar
  13. [9e]
    O. Hikosaka, R.H. Wurtz, J. Neurophysiol 53, 292 (1985)Google Scholar
  14. [10]
    R.H. Wurtz, M.E. Goldberg, D.L. Robinson, Prog. Psychobiol Physiol Psychol 9, 43 (1980)Google Scholar
  15. [11]
    J.G. Mc Elligott, E. Keller “Neuronal discharge in the posterior cerebellum: its relationship to saccadic eye movement generation” in “Functional Basis of Ocular Motility Control” (G. Lennerstrand, D.S. Zee, E.L. Keller eds), Pergamon Press, Oxford (1982)Google Scholar
  16. [12]
    K. Hepp, V. Henn, J. Jaeger, Exp. Brain Res. 45, 253 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [13]
    L. Ritchie, J. Neurophysiol. 39, 1246 (1976)Google Scholar
  18. [14]
    L.M. Optican, D.A. Robinson, J. Neurophysiol. 44, 1058 (1980)Google Scholar
  19. [15]
    T. Vilis, R. Snow, J. Hore, Exp. Brain Res. 51, 343 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. [16]
    V. Henn, B. Cohen, L.R. Young, Neurosci Res Prog Bull 18, 459 (1980)Google Scholar
  21. [17].
    W. Waespe, V. Henn, “Cooperative functions of vestibular nuclei neurons and floccular Purkinje cells in the control of nystagmus slow-phase velocity: Single-cell recordings and lesion studies in the monkey”. In “Adaptive Mechanisms in Gaze Control — Facts and Theories” (A. Berthoz and G. Melvill Jones, eds) Elsevier, Amsterdam (1985)Google Scholar
  22. [18]
    S.G. Lisberger, A.F. Fuchs, J. Neurophysiol. 41, 733, (1978)Google Scholar
  23. [18a]
    S.G. Lisberger, A.F. Fuchs, J. Neurophysiol. 41, 764 (1978)Google Scholar
  24. [19]
    M. Ito, “The Cerebellum and Neural Control”, Raven Press, New York (1984)Google Scholar
  25. [20]
    Advertisement in the Scientific American, Sept 19 79, p. 9 3Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Hepp
    • 1
  1. 1.Physics DepartmentE.T.H.ZürichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations