The Gut as an Osmoregulatory Organ: Comparative Aspects and Special References to Fishes

  • R. Kirsch
  • W. Humbert
  • V. Simonneaux
Conference paper
Part of the Proceedings in Life Sciences book series (LIFE SCIENCES)

Abstract

When considering the gut as an osmoregulatory organ, it must be kept in mind that the basic function of the gut is to split foodstuffs into simple compounds, small enough to cross cell membranes. The splitting of foodstuffs results in a considerable increase in the number of independent substrate particles in the digestive fluid: more than 100 amino acid molecules for one protein molecule and up to 500,000 monosaccharide molecules for one starch molecule. Splitting occurs in closed systems which appear in animal evolution in the following successive stages: the intracellular food vacuoles in Protozoa, the digestive sac (the enteron) in primitive invertebrates and finally the alimentary canal made up of successive parts allowing for simultaneous feeding and digestion. Moreover, many metabolites need sodium ions to be absorbed by cotransport into the digestive cells. The gut must ensure ion requirements for coupled ion-substrate absorption and also prevent deleterious variations in osmotic pressure. This is made possible either by a strong correlation between hydrolysis and metabolite absorption as is the case in filter feeders with continuous food supply or by osmoregulation by the gut epithelium in the general case of sequential feeding.

Keywords

Permeability Hydrolysis Crystallization Starch Hydrate 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allen A, Flemström G, Garner A, Silen W, Turnberg LA (1984) Mechanisms of mucosal protection in the upper gastrointestinal tract. Raven, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Ando M (1975) Intestinal water transport and chloride pump in relation to sea-water adaptation of the eel, Anguilla japonica. Comp Biochem Physiol 52A:229–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ando M (1980) Chloride-dependent sodium and water transport in the sea-water eel intestine. J Comp Physiol 138:87–91Google Scholar
  4. Ando M (1981) Potassium-dependent chloride transport in the seawater eel intestine. J Physiol Soc Jpn 43:282Google Scholar
  5. Ando M (1983) Potassium-dependent chloride and water transport across the sea-water eel intestine. J Membr Biol 73:125–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ando M, Kobayashi M (1978) Effects of stripping of the outer layers of the eel intestine on salt and water transport. Comp Biochem Physiol 61A:497–501Google Scholar
  7. Bahl KN (1945) Studies on the structure, development and physiology of the nephridia of the oligochaeta. VI. The physiology of excretion and the significance of the enteronephric type of nephridial system in Indian earthworms. Q J Microsc Sci 85:342–389Google Scholar
  8. Benos DJ, Prush RD (1972) Osmoregulation in fresh-water Hydra. Comp Biochem Physiol 43A:165–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chain BM (1980) The transepithelial potential and osmotic regulation in the green Hydra. J Exp Biol 88:161–173Google Scholar
  10. Cornell JC (1982) Sodium and chloride transport in the isolated intestine of the earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris (L). J Exp Biol 97:197–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Crowther RS, Marriott C (1984) Counter ion binding to mucus glycoproteins. J Pharmacol 36:21–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dow JAT (1981a) Countercurrent flows, water movements and nutrient absorption in the locust midgut. J Insect Physiol 27(9):579–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dow JAT (1981b) Ion and water transport in locust alimentary canal: evidence from in vivo electrochemical gradients. J Exp Biol 93:167–179Google Scholar
  14. Duffey ME, Thompson SM, Frizzell RA, Schultz SG (1979) Intracellular chloride activities and active chloride absorption in the intestinal epithelium of the winter flounder. J Membr Biol 50: 331–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Edney EB (1977) Water balance in land arthropods. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Fletcher CR (1978) Osmotic and ionic regulation in the cod (Gadus callarias L.). I. Water balance. J Comp Physiol 124:149–155Google Scholar
  17. Frizzell RA, Field M, Schultz SG (1979) Sodium-coupled chloride transport by epithelial tissues. Am J Physiol 236(1):F1–F8PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Geddes MC (1975a) Studies on an australian brine shrimp, Parartemia zietziania sayce (Crustacea: Anostraca). I. Salinity tolerance. Comp Biochem Physiol 51A:553–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Geddes MC (1975b) Studies on an australian brine shrimp, Parartemia zietziana sayce (Crustacea Anostraca). II. Osmotic and ionic regulation. Comp Biochem Physiol 51A:561–572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Geddes MC (1975c) Studies on an australian brine shrimp, Parartemia zietziana sayce (Crustacea: Anostraca). III. The mechanisms of osmotic and ionic regulation. Comp Biochem Physiol 51A: 573–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gerencser GA (1981) Effect of amino acids on chloride transport in Aplysia intestine. Am J Physiol 240:R61–R69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Gerencser GA (1983) Na+ absorption in Aplysia intestine: Na+ fluxes and intracellular Na+ and K+ activities. Am J Physiol 244:R412–R417PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Gerencser GA, White JF (1980) Membrane potentials and chloride activities in epithelial cells of Aplysia intestine. Am J Physiol 239:R445–R449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Gupta BL, Wall BJ, Oschman JL, Hall TA (1980) Direct microprobe evidence of local concentration gradients and recycling of electrolytes during fluid absorption in the rectal papillae of Calliphora. J Exp Biol 88:21–47Google Scholar
  25. Halm DR, Krasny EJ, Frizzell RA (1983) Potassium transport across the intestine of the winter flounder: active secretion and absorption. Membr Biophysics 11:245–255Google Scholar
  26. Hanrahan JW, Phillips JE (1983) Cellular mechanisms and control of KCl absorption in insect hind-gut. J Exp Biol 106:71–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Hirano T, Mayer-Gostan N (1976) Eel oesophagus as an osmoregulatory organ. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 73(4):1348–1350PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Holstein B (1979a) Gastric acid secretion and water balance in the marine teleost Gadus morhua. Acta Physiol Scand 105:93–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Holstein B (1979b) Gastric acid secretion and drinking in the atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) during acidic or hyperosmotic perfusion of the intestine. Acta Physiol Scand 106:257–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Humbert W, Kirsch R, Meister MF (1984) Scanning electron microscopic study of the oesophageal mucous layer in the eel Anguilla anguilla L. J Fish Biol 25:117–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kirsch R (1978) Role of the oesophagus in osmoregulation in teleost fishes. In “Osmotic and volume regulation”. Alfred Benzon Symposium XI. Munksgaard Academic, New York, pp 138 – 154Google Scholar
  32. Kirsch R, Meister MF (1982) Progressive processing of the ingested water in the gut of the sea-water teleosts. J Exp Biol 98:67–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Kirsch R, Guinier D, Meens R (1975) L’équilibre hydrique de l’Anguille européenne (Anguilla anguilla L.). Etude du rôle de l’oesophage dans l’utilisation de l’eau de boisson et étude de la perméabilité osmotique branchiale. J Physiol Paris 70:605–626PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Kirsch R, Humbert W, Rodeau JL (1984) Control of the blood osmolarity in fishes with references to the functional anatomy of the gut. In: Péqueux A, Gilles R, Bolis L (eds) Osmoregulation in estuarine and marine animals. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 67–92Google Scholar
  35. Long S, Skadhauge E (1983) The role of urinary precipitates in the excretion of electrolytes and urate in the domestic fowl. J Exp Biol 104:41–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Madga DS (1975) The mammalian alimentary system. Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  37. Meister MF, Humbert W, Kirsch R, Vivien-Roels B (1983) Structure and ultrastructure of the esophagus in sea-water and fresh-water teleosts (Pisces). Zoomorphology 102:33–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Oglesby LC (1978) Salt and water balance. In: Mill PJ (ed) Physiology of Annelids. Academic, London, pp 555–658Google Scholar
  39. Palfrey HC, Rao MC (1983) Na/K/Cl co-transport and its regulation. J Exp Biol 106:43–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Parmelee JT, Renfro JL (1983) Oesophageal desalination of seawater in flounder: role of active sodium transport. Am J Physiol 245:R888–R893PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Rice GE, Skadhauge E (1982a) The in vivo dissociation of colonic and coprodeal transepithelial transport in NaCl depleted domestic fowl. J Comp Physiol 146:51–56Google Scholar
  42. Rice GE, Skadhauge E (1982b) Colonic and coprodeal transepithelial transport parameters in NaCl-loaded domestic fowl. J Comp Physiol 147:65–69Google Scholar
  43. Sharratt BM, Bellamy D, Chester JI (1964) Adaptation of the silver eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) to sea-water and to artificial media together with observations on the role of the gut. Comp Biochem Physiol 11:19–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Shehadeh ZH, Gordon MS (1969) The role of intestine in salinity adaptation of the rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri. Comp Biochem Physiol 30:397–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Shephard KL (1982) The influence of mucus on the diffusion of ions across the oesophagus of fish. Physiol Zool 54(2):224–229Google Scholar
  46. Skadhauge E (1969) The mecanism of salt and water absorption in the intestine of the eel (Anguilla anguilla) adapted to waters of various salinities. J Physiol 204:135–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Skadhauge E (1974) Coupling of transmural flows of NaCl and water in the intestine of the eel (Anguilla anguilla). J Exp Biol 60:535–546PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Skadhauge E (1981) Osmoregulation in birds. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  49. Smith HW (1930) The absorption and excretion of water and salts by marine teleosts. Am J Physiol 93:480–505Google Scholar
  50. Thuet P (1982) Ecophysiological adaptations of Artemia (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Anostraca) to changes in salinity. Bull Soc Ecophysiol 7:203–225Google Scholar
  51. Westphal A (1976) Protozoa. Blackie, GlasgowGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Kirsch
  • W. Humbert
  • V. Simonneaux
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire de Zoologie et d’Embryologie expérimentale, J.E. CNRS 033669Université Louis PasteurStrasbourgFrance

Personalised recommendations