Exercise in Normally Ventilating and Apnoeic Birds

  • P. J. Butler
  • A. J. Woakes
Conference paper
Part of the Proceedings in Life Sciences book series (LIFE SCIENCES)


Within the class Aves there are animals that can fly, (some for long distances and some at high altitudes) run, swim, and dive. A few, for example ducks and auks, are able to perform all of these types of locomotion. When migrating some birds and may fly several thousands of kilometres without stopping. For example the blackpoll warbler,Dendroica striata, is one of many species that travels directly from N. to S. America across the Atlantic Ocean, a distance of 3,000–4,000 km, while black brant geese, Branta bernicla nigricans, fly approx. 4,800 km across the Pacific Ocean from Alaska to Mexico (Ogilvie 1978).


Wind Tunnel Respiratory Frequency Dive Duration Emperor Penguin Barnacle Goose 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. J. Butler
    • 1
  • A. J. Woakes
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Zoology and Comparative PhysiologyThe University of BirminghamBirminghamGreat Britain

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