The Relationship Between Erythrocyte Phosphate Metabolism, Carbon Dioxide, and pH on Blood Oxygen Affinity in Birds
In recent years, we have become increasingly aware of the remarkable diversity in the different organic phosphate compounds in erythrocytes, many of which have been shown to modulate hemoglobin oxygenation. For example: 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-P2-glycerate) previously considered a characteristic only of mammalian erythrocytes, has been observed as a major constituent of the red cells of embryos of birds and reptiles and in the red cells of the armored catfish (Borgese and Lampert 1975; Isaacks and Harkness 1975, 1980); inositol tetrakisphosphate (inositol-P4) was found to be the major organic phosphate in erythrocytes of the mature ostrich (Isaacks and Harkness 1980); inositol pentakisphosphate (inositol-P5) previously considered a characteristic of avian erythrocytes has been observed in erythrocytes of several species of fishes and sea turtles (Bartlett 1980; Borgese and Nagel 1978; Isaacks and Harkness 1980; Rapoport and Guest 1941); inositol bisphosphate (inositol-P2) has been found in erythrocytes of the South American (Lepidosiren paradoxa) and African (Protopterus aethiopicus) lungfish (Bartlett 1980; Isaacks and Harkness 1980), but its role as a modifier of hemoglobin function has not been verified; and in some of our very recent studies the red blood cells of monotremes, the egg-laying mammals (echidna and duckbill platypus), were found nearly devoid of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) (Kim et al. 1981; Isaacks et al. 1984), only traces were present (0.03 and 0.06 mM, respectively).
KeywordsMigration Phosphorus Mercury Glycolate Respiration
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