Advertisement

Cadmium pp 93-113 | Cite as

Exposure to Cadmium of the West-German Population — Results of Biological Monitoring Studies 1980–1986

  • Ulrich Ewers
  • Arthur Brockhaus
  • Ingeborg Freier
  • Erich Jermann
  • Reinhard Dolgner
Part of the Environmental Toxin Series book series (TOXIN SERIES, volume 2)

Abstract

This article reviews recent studies concerning the current situation of cadmium exposure of the West-German population. The normal levels of cadmium in blood, urine and kidney cortex as measured by modern analytical techniques applying careful quality control are discussed. Moreover, recent results concerning the normal levels of urinary proteins as indicators of cadmium nephrotoxicity are presented. The knowledge of the normal levels of indicators of exposure and effect is an essential prerequisite to detect undue exposures and nephrotoxic effects of cadmium in the general population as well as in occupationally exposed groups of workers.

Keywords

Cadmium Concentration Lung Cancer Risk Cadmium Exposure Kidney Cortex Cadmium Level 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Alt JM, Maywald A, Raguse-Degener G, Rühling U (1983) Proteinurie bei einer Cadmium— exponierten Bevölkerungsgruppe (Oker 1980 ) Staub Reinhalt Luft 43: 294–291Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alt JM, Schiele R, Schaller KH (1985) Untersuchungen zur Cadmiumbelastung und zur Häufigkeit von Nierenerkrankungen älterer Frauen in verschiedenen Gebieten der Bundes—republik Deutschland. Nieren Hochdruckkrankh 14: 546–549Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aurand K, Hoffmeister H (eds) (1980) Ad hoc—Felduntersuchungen über die Schwermetall—belastung der Bevölkerung im Raum Oker im März 1980. Bga-Berichte 2/1980, Schriftenreihe des Bundesgesundheitsamtes. D Reimer Verlag, Berlin-WGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bernard A, Moreau D, Lauwerys R (1982) Comparison of retinol binding protein and ß2— microglobulin determination in urine for the early detection of tubular proteinuria. Clin Chim Acta 126: 1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brockhaus A, Freier I, Ewers U, Jeimann E, Dolgner R (1983) Levels of cadmium and lead in blood in relation to smoking, sex, occupation, and other factors in an adult population of the FRG. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 52: 167–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brockhaus A, Collet W, Dolgner R, Engelke R, Ewers U, Freier I, Jermann E, Krämer U, Manojlowic N, Turfeld M, Winneke G (1988) Exposure to lead and cadmium of children living in different areas of North-West Germany. Int Arch Occup Environ Health (in press)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bruaux P, Claeys-Thoreau, Ducoffre G, Lafontaine A, Grech A, Vassallo A (1983) Exposure to lead and cadmium of the general population of Malta. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 55: 119–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Castoldi MR, Calzeferri G, Odone P, Dell’Orto A, Zocchetti C, Alessio L (1983) Behaviour of cadmium biological indicators in subjects living in the Milan area. Med Lav 74: 442–452Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dolgner R, Brockhaus A, Ewers U, Freier I, Jermann E, Engelke R, Turfeld M, Zander D, Krämer U (1988) Untersuchungen zur Schwermetallbelastung von Kindern im Ruhrgebiet. Öff Gesundh Wes (in press)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Drasch G (1982) Kadmium—Belastung im südbayerischen Raum. Münch Med Wschr. 124: 1129–1132Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Drasch G (1983) An increase of cadmium body burden for this century — an investigation on human tissues. Sei Total Environ 26: 111–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Drasch G, Kauert G, von Meyer L (1985) Cadmium body burden of an occupationally non burdened population in southern Bavaria (FRG) Int Arch Occup Environ Health 55:141— 148Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Elinder CG, Kjellström T, Linmann L, Pershagen G (1978) Urinary excretion of cadmium and zinc among persons from Sweden. Environ Res 75: 473–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Elinder CG, Friberg L, Lind B, Jawaid M (1983) Lead and cadmium levels in blood samples of the general population of Sweden. Environ Res 30: 233–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ellis KJ, Vartsky D, Zanzi I, Cohn SH (1979) Cadmium: in vivo measurement in smokers and nonsmokers. Science (NY) 205: 323–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ellis KJ, Morgan WD, Zanzi I, Yasumura S, Vartsky D, Cohn SH (1981) Critical concentration of cadmium in human renal cortex: Dose—effect studies in cadmium smelter workers. J Toxicol Environ Health 7: 691–703Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ellis KJ, Yuen K, Yasumura S, Cohn SH (1985) Dose—response analysis of cadmium in man: Body burden vs kidney dysfunction. Environ Res 33: 216–226Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Engval J, Perk J (1985) Prevalence of hypertension among cadmium—exposed workers. Arch Environ Health 40: 185–190Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ewers U, Dolgner R, Brockhaus A, Freier I, Jermann E, Hilser W, Domisch K, Braun R (1984) Untersuchungen zur Blei— und Cadmiumbelastung von Kindern und Jugendlichen in einem schwermetallbelasteten Gebiet (Stolberg). Öff Gesundh Wes 46: 231–236Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ewers U, Brockhaus A, Dolgner R, Freier I, Jermann E, Bernard A, Stiller—Winkler R, Hahn R, Manojlovic N (1985) Environmental exposure to cadmium and renal function of elderly women living in cadmium—polluted areas of the Federal Republic of Germany. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 55: 217–239Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ewers U, Brockhaus A, Dolgner R, Freier I, Jermann E, Hahn R, Schlipköter HW (1985) Cadmiumbelastung und Nierenfunktionsstörungen bei Bewohnern von Gebieten mit hoher Cadmium—Immissionsbelastung in der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Staub Reinhalt Luft 45: 560–566Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ewers U, Brockhaus A, Freier I, Jermann E, Dolgner R (1985) Contribution of lead and cadmium in dustfall to blood lead and blood cadmium in children and adults living in two non— ferrous smelter areas of West-Germany. International Conference “Heavy Metals in the Environment”, Athens, September 1985, pp 420–422 CEP Consultants, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Flanagan PR, McLellan JS, Haist J, Cherian G, Chamberlain MJ, Valberg LS (1978) Increased dietary cadmium absorption in mice and human subjects with iron deficiency. Gastroenterol 74: 841–846Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Friberg L (1984) Cadmium and the kidney. Environ Health Persp 54: 1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gesundheitsbehörde der Freien und Hansestadt Hamburg in Verbindung mit dem Institut für Wasser—, Boden— und Lufthygiene des Bundesgesundheitsamtes (1985) Ärztliches Untersuchungsprogramm zur Klärung möglicher individueller Belastungen durch Arsen und an—dere Schwermetalle. Pressemitteilung. Gesundheitsbehörde HamburgGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Haemisegger E, Jones A, Steigerwald B, Thomson V (1985) The air toxics problem in the United States: an analysis of cancer risks for selected pollutants. U.S. EPA Report No 450/ 1–85—001. Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hahn R, Ewers U, Jermann E, Freier I, Brockhaus A, Schlipköter HW (1987) Cadmium in kidney cortex of inhabitants of North—West Germany: its relationship to age, sex, smoking and environmental pollution by cadmium. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 59: 165: 176Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Herber RFM (1984) Beta–2 microglobulin and other urinary proteins as an index of cadmium nephrotoxicity. Pure Appl Chem 56: 957–965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Jessen H, Kruse H, Piechotowski I (1984) Cadmiumkonzentrationen im Blut von Stadt— und Inselbewohnern in Schleswig—Holstein. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 54: 45–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kjellström T, Shiroishi K, Evrin PE (1977) Urinary ß2—micioglobulin excretion among people exposed to cadmium in the general environment. Environ Res 75: 318–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kjellström T (1979) Exposure and accumulation of cadmium in populations from Japan, the United States, and Sweden. Environ Health Persp 25: 169–197Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kjellström T, Elinder CG, Friberg L (1984) Conceptual problems in establishing the critical concentration of cadmium in human kidney cortex. Environ Res 33: 284–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kojima S, Haga Y, Kurijhara T, Yamawaki T (1977) A comparison between fecal cadmium and urinary ß2—microglobulin, total protein, and cadmium among Japanese farmers. Environ Res 74: 436–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kopp J (1986) Cadmium and the cardiovascular system. In: Foulkes EC (ed) Cadmium (Handbook of Experimental Pathology, vol 80 ), pp 195–280 Springer Verlag, Berlin — Heidelberg — New York — TokyoGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kowal EN, Johnson DE, Kraemer FD, Pahren HR (1979) Normal levels of cadmium in diet, urine, blood, and tissues of inhabitants of the United States. J Toxicol Environ Health 5:995— 1014Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kowal NE, Zirkes M (1983) Urinary cadmium and ß2—microglobulin: normal values and concentration adjustment. J Toxicol Environ Health 77: 607–624Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Krause C, Chutsch M (eds) (1987) Haaranalyse in Medizin und Umwelt — Indikationen des mineralischen Stoffwechsels und der Umweltbelastung. Schriftenreihe des Vereins für Was—ser—, Boden— und Lufthygiene 71. G Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart — New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lauwerys RR, Bernard A, Roels HA, Buchet JP, Viau C (1984) Characterization of cadmium proteinuria in man and rat. Environ Health Perspect 54: 147–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lauwerys R, Hardy R, Job M, Buchet JP, Roels H, Bruaux P, Rondia D (1984) Environmental pollution by cadmium and cadmium body burden: an autopsy study. Toxicol Lett 25: 287–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Nogawa K, Kobayashi E, Inaoka H, Ishizaki A (1977) The relationship between the renal effects of cadmium and cadmium concentration in urine among inhabitants of cadmium—polluted areas. Environ Rs 74: 391–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Piscator M (1981) Role of cadmium in carcinogenesis with special reference to cancer of the prostate. Environ Health Persp 40: 107–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Roels HA, Lauwerys RR, Buchet JP, Bernard A (1981 a) Environmental exposure to cadmium and renal function of aged women in three areas of Belgium. Environ Res 24:117— 130Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Roels HA, Lauwerys RR, Buchet JP, Bernard A, Chettle DR, Harvey TC, Al Haddad IK (1981) In vivo measurement of liver and kidney cadmium in workers exposed to this metal: its significance with respect to cadmium in blood and urine. Environ Res 26: 217–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Roels HA, Lauwerys RR, Dardenne AN (1983) The critical level of cadmium in human renal cortex: A reevaluation. Toxicol Lett 75: 357–360Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Schaller KH, Gonzales J, Thürauf J, Schiele R (1980) Früherkennung von Nierenschäden bei beruflich gegenüber Blei, Quecksilber und Cadmium exponierten Personen. Zbl Bakt Hyg, 1 Abt Orig B 171: 320–335Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Schaller KH, Schneider L, Hall G, Valentin H (1984) Cadmium—Gehalt im Vollblut bei Bewohnern verschiedener Regionen des Freistaates Bayern. Zbl Bakt Hyg, 1 Abt Orig B 775: 446–463Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Schiele R, Alt J, Schaller KH, Weltle D, Valentin H (1984) Untersuchungen zur Cadmium— Belastung und zur Häufigkeit von Nierenerkrankungen älterer Frauen in verschiedenen Gebieten der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Forschungsbericht 84–10606032. Umweltbundes—amt, Berlin—WGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Schiele R, Glatzel I, Schaller KH (1985) Die usuelle Cadmium—Belastung von Müttern und ihren Neugeborenen in verschiedenen Regionen Bayerns. Zbl Bakt Hyg I Abt Orig B 157: 295–308Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Shaik ZA, Smith JC (1980) Metabolism of orally ingested cadmium in humans. In: Hohnstedt B, Lauwerys R, Mercier M (eds), Mechanisms of Toxicity and Hazard Evaluation — Proceedings of the Second International Congress on Toxicology, Brussels 1980 pp 569— 574Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Staessen J, Bulpitt CJ, Roels H, Bernard A, Fagard R, Joosens JV, Lauwerys R, Lijnen P, Amery A (1984) Urinary cadmium and lead concentrations and their relation to blood pressure in a population with low exposure. Br J Ind Med 41: 241–248Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Summer KH, Heilmaier H (1985) Metallothionein und Kadmium in der menschlichen Nierenrinde: Einfluß des Rauchens. In: Wege und Wirkungen von Umweltchemikalien. Tagung der Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Großforschungseinrichtungen im Wissenschaftszentrum, Bonn—Bad Godesberg, December 1985Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Takenaka S, Oldiges H, König H, Hochrainer D, Oberdörster G (1983) Carcinogenicity of cadmium chloride aerosols in W rats. J Natl Cancer Inst 70: 367–373Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Thürauf JR, Schaller KH, Valentin H, Weltle D (1983) Zur gegenwärtigen Belastung der Bevölkerung mit Cadmium. Fortschr Med 99: 1312–1317Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Thürauf J, Schaller KH, Valentin H, Weltle D, Grote K, Schellmann B (1986) Cadmium concentrations in autopsy materials from differently polluted areas of West Germany. Zbl Bakt Hyg I Abt Orig B 752: 337–347Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Thun MJ, Schnorr TM, Smith AB, Halperin WE, Lernen RA (1985) Mortality among a cohort of U.S. cadmium production workers — an update. J Natl Cancer Inst 74: 325–333Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Umweltbundesamt (1981) Cadmium—Bericht. UBA—Texte. Berlin (West )Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Vather M (1982) Assessment of human exposure to lead and cadmium through biological monitoring. National Swedish Institute of Environmental Medicine and Karolinska Institute (Department of Environmental Hygiene) StockholmGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Watanabe T, Koizumi A, Fujita H, Kumai M, Ikeda M (1983) Cadmium levels in the blood of inhabitants in nonpolluted areas in Japan with special reference to aging and smoking. Environ Res 57: 472–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    WHO (1980) Recommended Health—Based Limits in Occupational Exposure to Heavy Metals. WHO Technical Report Series 543, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    WHO—Euro (=WHO Regional Office for Europe) (1982) Integrated monitoring of exposure to selected chemicals and their health effects. Health Aspects of Chemical Safety, Interim Document 8, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Zielhuis RL, Stuik EJ, Herber RFM, Salle HJA, Verberk MM, Posma FD, Jager JH (1977) Smoking habits and levels of lead and cadmium in blood of urban women. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 59: 53–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ulrich Ewers
    • 1
  • Arthur Brockhaus
    • 1
  • Ingeborg Freier
    • 1
  • Erich Jermann
    • 1
  • Reinhard Dolgner
    • 1
  1. 1.Medizinisches Institut für UmwelthygieneUniversität DüsseldorfDüsseldorf 1Germany

Personalised recommendations