Depression Scales Derived from the Hopkins Symptom Checklist

  • R. S. Lipman


The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL) is a patient self-report symptom inventory derived from the Cornell Medical Index. The HSCL was developed initially to measure the more common psychoneurotic complaints of outpatients [18]. An early version of the instrument, the “Discomfort Scale,” was used by Parloff et al. [26] and by Frank et al. [11] as an improvement measure in their studies of psychotherapy. Frank et al. [11], for example, employed a 41-item version of the HSCL in a series of psychotherapy studies.


Sexual Interest Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Poor Appetite Depressed Group Depressed Outpatient 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Beck, A.T. 1976. Cognitive Therapy and the Emotional Disorders. Universities Press, New York.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Beck, A.T., Ward, C.H., Mendelson, M., Mock., and Erbough, J. 1961. Inventory for measuring depression. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 4: 561–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Covi, L., Lipman, R.S., Derogatis, L.R., Smith, J.E., and Pattison, J.H. 1974. Drugs and group psychotherapy in neurotic depression. Am. J. Psychiatry 131: 191–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Covi, L., Lipman, R.S., Alarcon, R. D., and Smith, V.K. 1976. Psychotherapy interaction in depression. Am. J. Psychiatry 133: 502–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Covi, L., Lipman, R.S., McNair, D., and Czwelinsky, T. 1979. Symptomatic volunteers in multicenter trials. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. 3: 521–533.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Derogatis, L.R., and Cleary, P.A. 1977. Confirmation of the dimensional structure of the SCL-90: A study in construct validation. J. Clin. Psychol. 33: 981–989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Derogatis, L.R., Lipman, R.S., Rickels, K., Uhlenhuth, E.H., and Covi, L. 1974. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL) — A Measure of Primary Symptom Dimensions. In: P. Pichot (ed.), Psychological Measurements in Psychopharmacology — Modern Problems in Pharmacopsychiatry, pp. 79–110. Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Derogatis, L.R., Lipman, R.S., Rickels, K., Uhlenhuth, E.H., and Covi, L. 1974. The Hopkins Symptoms Checklist — a self-report symptom inventory. Behav. Sci. 19: 1–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Derogatis, L.R., Rickels, K., and Rock, A.F. 1976. The SCL-90 and the MMPI: A step in the validation of a new self-report scale. Br. J. Psychiatry 128: 280–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Downing, R.W., Rickels, K., McNair, D., Lipman, R.S., Kahn, R.J., Fisher, S., Covi, L., and Smith, V.K. 1981. Description of sample, comparison of anxious and depressed groups, attrition rates. Psychopharmacol. Bull. 17: 94–97.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Frank, J.R., Gliedman, L.E., Imber, S.D., Nash, E.H., and Stone, A.R., 1957. Why patients leave psychotherapy. Archives of Neurological Psychiatry 77: 283–299.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Guy, W.C. 1976. ECDEU Assessment Manual for Psychopharmacology Revised, DHEW Publication No. (ADM) 76-338, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hamilton, M. A. 1960. A rating scale for depression. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 23: 56–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hollister, L.E., Overall, J.E., Shelton, J., Pennington, U., Kimbell, I., and Johnson, M. 1967. Amitryptiline, perphenazine, and amitryptiline — perphenazine combination in different depressive syndromes. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 17: 486–493.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kellner, R., Sheffield, B.F., and Simpson, G.M. 1978. The value of self-rating scales in drug trials with nonpsychotic patients. Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. 2: 197–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lipman, R.S. 1982. Differentiating anxiety and depression in anxiety disorders: Use of rating scales. Psychopharmacol. Bull. 18: 69–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lipman, R.S., and Covi, L. 1976. Outpatient treatment of neurotic depression-medication and group psychotherapy. In: R. L. Spitzer and J. Zubin (eds.), Evaluation of Psychological Therapies, pp. 178–218. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore MD.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lipman, R.S., Cole, J.O., Park, L.C., and Rickels, K. 1965. Sensitivity of symptom and non-symptom-focused criteria of outpatient drug efficacy. Am. J. Psychiatry 122(1): 24–27.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lipman, R.S., Park, L.C., and Rickels, K. 1966. Paradoxical influence of a therapeutic side-effect interpretation. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 15: 462–474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lipman, R.S., Covi, L., Rickels, K., Uhlenhuth, E.H., and Lazar, R. 1968. Selected measures of change in outpatient drug evaluation: Psychopharmacology — a review of progress. 1957–1967. (PHS Publication No. 1836), U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lipman, R.S., Rickels, K., Covi, L., Derogatis, L.R., and Uhlenhuth, E.H. 1968. Factors of symptom distress — Doctor ratings of anxious neurotic patients. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 21: 328–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lipman, R.S., Covi, L., and Shapiro, A.K. 1979. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL): Factors derived from the HSCL-90. J. Affective Disord. 1: 9–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lipman, R.S., Covi, L., Downing, R.W., Fisher, S., Kahn, R.J., McNair, D.M., Rickels, K., and Smith, V.K. 1981. Pharmacotherapy of anxiety and depression: rationale and study design. Psychopharmacol. Bull. 3: 91–94.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mattsson, N.B., Williams, H.V., Rickels, K., Lipman, R.S., and Uhlenhuth, E.H. 1969. Dimensions of symptom distress in anxious neurotic outpatients. Psychopharmacol. Bull. 5: 19–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Overall, J.E., Hollister, L.E., Johnson, M., and Pennington, U. 1966. Nosology of depression and differential response to drugs. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 195: 946–948.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Parloff, M.D., Kelman, H.C., and Frank, J.D., 1954. Comfort, effectiveness and self-awareness as criteria of improvement in psychotherapy. Am. J. Psychiatry 5: 343–351.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Prusoff, B., and Klerman, G.L. 1954. Differentiating depressed from anxious neurotic outpatient: Use of discriminant function analysis for separation of neurotic affective states. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 30: 302–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Raskin, A., Schulterbrandt, J.G., Reating, N., and McKeon, J.J. 1970. Differential response to chlorpromazine, imipramine, and a placebo among subgroups of hospitalized depressed patients. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 23: 164–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ravaris, C.L., Robinson, D.S., Ives, J.O., Nies, A., and Bartlett, D. 1980. Phenelzine and amitriptyline in the treatment of depression: a comparison of present and past studies. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 37: 1075–1080.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Rickels, K., Lipman, R.S., Park, L.C., Covi, L., Uhlenhuth, E.H., and Mock, J.E. 1971. Drugs, doctor warmth, and clinic setting in the symptomatic response to minor tranquilizers. Psychopharmacologia (Berlin) 20: 128–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rickels, K., Downing, R.W., Lipman, R.S., Fisher, E., and Randall, A.M. 1973. The Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) as a measure of psychotropic drug response. Dis. Nerv. Syst. 34: 98–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rickels, K., Garcia, C.R., Lipman, R.S., Derogatis, L.R., and Fisher, E.L. 1976. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist — Assessing emotional distress in obstetric-gynecologic practice. Primary Care 3: 751–764.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Robinson, D.S., Nies, A., Ravaris, L., Ives, J.O., and Bartlett, D. 1978. Clinical pharmacology of phenelzine. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 35: 629–635.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Robinson, D.S., Nies, A., Concella, J., and Cooper, T.B. 1981. Phenelzine plasma levels, pharmacokinetics and clinical outcome. Psychopharmacol. Bull. 17: 154–157.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Spitzer, R.L., Endicott, J., and Robins, E. 1978. Research diagnostic criteria: rationale and reliability. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 35: 773–782.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Uhlenhuth, E.H., Rickels, K., Fisher, S., Park, L.C., Lipman, R.S., and Mock, J. 1966. Drug, doctor’s verbal attitude and clinic setting in the symptomatic response to pharmacotherapy. Psychopharmacologia (Berlin) 9: 392–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Uhlenhuth, E.H., Lipman, R.S., Chassan, J.B., Hines, L.R., and McNair, D.M. 1970. Methodological issues in evaluating the effectiveness of agents for treating anxious patients. In: J. Levine, B., Schiele, and L. Bouthilet (eds.), Principles and Problems in Establishing the Efficacy of Psychotropic Agents. U.S. Public Health Service, Chevy Chase, MD.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Uhlenhuth, E.H., Lipman, R.S., Baiter, M.B., and Stern, M. 1974. Symptom intensity and life stress in the city. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 31: 759–764.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Uhlenhuth, E.H., Glass, R.M., and Fishman, M.W. 1979. Multiple crossover design with an anti-anxiety agent and an antidepressant. Psychopharmacol. Bull. 15: 37–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Waskow, I.E., and Parloff, M.B. (eds.). 1975. Psychotherapy Change Measures. National Institute of Mental Health, Rockville, MD.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Weissman, M.M., Pottenger, M., Kleber, H., Ruben, H., and Williams, D. 1977. Symptom patterns in primary and secondary depression. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 34: 854–862.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Williams, H.V., Lipman, R.S., Uhlenhuth, E.H., and Rickels, K. 1968. Replication of symptom distress factors in anxious neurotic outpatients. Multivariate Behavior Research 3: 199–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Zung, W.W.K. 1965. A self-rating depression scale. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 12: 63–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. S. Lipman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations