Neurochemical Investigations into the Human Area Postrema

  • J.-C. Schwartz
  • Y. Agid
  • M.-L. Bouthenet
  • F. Javoy-Agid
  • C. Llorens-Cortes
  • M.-P. Martres
  • H. Pollard
  • N. Sales
  • H. Taquet
Part of the Advances in Applied Neurological Sciences book series (NEUROLOGICAL, volume 3)

Abstract

It is now well established that the area postrema (AP) participates in the initiation of emetic reflexes elicited in various physiological, pathological or pharmacological circumstances (reviewed by Borison and Wang 1953; Wang 1965; Borison et al. 1981). In addition it is generally assumed that a large number of emetic and anti-emetic agents exert their actions in humans, at least in some cases, by interfering with local neurotransmitter metabolism or with receptors implicated in emetic reflexes (Peroutka and Snyder 1982). Nevertheless there are still a limited number of compounds used to control nausea and vomiting in patients; their efficacy is sometimes limited and their modes of loci of actions not always perfectly understood. Animal experiments are useful for such purposes but, in view of the known species differences in emetic reflexes, we found it of interest to study directly in human AP the presence of various neurotransmitters, their synthesising and inactivating enzymes and their receptors. This neurochemical investigation was performed on the AP dissected out from recently deceased patients and attention was particularly focused on markers of neurotransmitter systems likely to be involved in nausea and vomiting, as suggested by various drug effects, like the cholinergic, opioidergic, histaminergic and catecholaminergic systems. Indeed, one limitation in these kind of studies are the post-mortem alterations which may occur during the time elapsed between death and obtaining the tissue preparations used in the biochemical studies. In order to circumvent to a certain extent this inherent difficulty, we have, in most cases, studied the post-mortem stability of the various markers in the brains of laboratory animals or referred to previous studies on this matter.

Keywords

Dementia Angiotensin Enzymatic Degradation Noradrenaline Adrenaline 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • J.-C. Schwartz
    • 1
  • Y. Agid
    • 2
  • M.-L. Bouthenet
    • 3
  • F. Javoy-Agid
    • 2
  • C. Llorens-Cortes
    • 1
  • M.-P. Martres
    • 1
  • H. Pollard
    • 3
  • N. Sales
    • 3
  • H. Taquet
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre Paul Broca de l’INSERMUnité 109 de NeurobiologieParisFrance
  2. 2.Laboratoire de Médecine ExpérimentaleCHU Pitié SalpétrièreParisFrance
  3. 3.Laboratoires de PhysiologieUniversité René DescartesParisFrance

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