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Das vaskuläre Endothel und seine Bedeutung im Rahmen pathobiologischer Prozesse

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Part of the Anaesthesiologie und Intensivmedizin Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine book series (A+I, volume 177)

Zusammenfassung

Seit der allgemeineren Anwendung der Transmissionselektronenmikroskopie —etwa ab dem Jahre 1950 — hat die Ergründung des Feinbaus der Endothelzellen einen raschen Fortschritt genommen. Bis dahin hatte das Endothel — seit seiner Identifizierung als Gewebe [4, 103, 105, 120] waren immerhin mehr als 100 Jahre vergangen — im wesentlichen nur als porenlose „Haut, homogen und kontinuierlich wie Collodium“ [209], gegolten. Neben Palade, der 1953 als erster ultrastrukturelle Details verschiedener Endothelzelltypen systematisch darstellte [157], ist es v. a. Bennett [16] zu verdanken, daß die bald offenkundig gewordene Formenvielfalt der im Körper vorhandenen Endothelzelltypen in ein bis heute zweckmäßiges Ordnungsschema gebracht worden ist [16]. Es bahnten sich über rein strukturelle Untersuchungen hinausgehende experimentelle Möglichkeiten an, als Jaffe 1973 ein Verfahren zur Isolierung, Identifizierung und Züchtung von Endothelzellen aus menschlicher V. umbilicalis beschrieb [115]. Rasch wurden ähnliche Methoden auch für die Präparation und Kultivation anderer Endothelzellarten berichtet (zur Übersicht: [77, 78, 135, 150, 181]). Die an den gezüchteten Zellen auf relativ einfache Weise in vitro durchführbaren zellbiologischen, biochemischen, physiologischen und pharmakologischen Studien weisen heute immer mehr darauf hin, daß die einzelnen Endothelarten verschiedener vaskulärer Herkunft nicht nur morphologisch, sondern auch durch sehr große funktioneile Unterschiede geprägt sind [73]. Gleichzeitig besitzen sie aber auch eine ganze Reihe gemeinsamer struktureller und biochemischer Eigenschaften, die v. a. im Dienste des Endothels stehen, in seiner Gesamtheit Hüll- und Verteilungsorgan für das zirkulierende Blut zu sein, dieses gegen die interstitiellen Räume und die Parenchymgewebe in differenzierter Weise abzugrenzen und eine antithrombogene Gefäßinnenfläche aufzubauen bzw. ständig zu gewährleisten.

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