Pituitary, Prolactinomas, and Pregnancy

  • Jean-François Bonneville
  • Françoise Cattin
  • Jean-Louis Dietemann


Erdheim and Stumme have demonstrated an increase in weight as much as twofold of the pituitary gland during pregnancy. There is very little increase in the anteroposterior and transverse axes of the gland due to the limited space available for expansion. The increase is thus primarily in height, which has been variously reported to increase from a mean 5.9 mm in the nulliparous woman to 7.5 mm at term, with a maximum size of 11.5 mm. The increase in circulating estrogen levels during pregnancy probably stimulates both hyperplasia and hypertrophy of lactotropic cells. Furthermore, there is a parallel between the increase in estrogen and prolactin levels during pregnancy.


Pituitary Adenoma Pituitary Gland Pituitary Tumor Prolactin Level Pituitary Apoplexy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Andersen AN, Starup J, Tabor A, Jensen HK, Westergaard JG (1983) The possible prognostic value of serum prolactin increment during pregnancy in hyperprolactinaemic patients. Acta Endocrinol 102:1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aubert B (1981) Mesures des doses en radiodiagnostic et tomodensitométrie. J Radiol 62:587–589PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Batrinos L (1983) Prolactinomas and Pregnancy. In: Tolis G (ed) Prolactin and Prolactinomas. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Belforte L, Bruno M, Campagnoli C, Fessia L, Massara F, Molinatti GM (1980) Hormone pattern during bromocriptine. Induced pregnancy in hyperprolactinaemic patients. Eur J Obstet Gynec Reprod Biol 10:309–317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bergh T, Nillius SJ, Wide L (1978) Clinical course and outcome of pregnancies in amenorrheic women with hyperprolactinemia and pituitary tumours. Br Med J 1:875–880PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bonneville JF, Dietemann JL, Cattin F, Poulignot D, Couturier M, Mollet E (1981) Microadenomes à prolamine traités par la bromocriptine. Surveillance tomodensitométrique. Nouv Presse Med 10:3725–3726Google Scholar
  7. Bonneville JF, Poulignot D, Cattin F, Couturier M, Mollet E, Dietemann JL (1982) Apport des méthodes nouvelles dans l’exploration morphologique des tumeurs hypophysäres. Ann Endocrinol (Paris) 43:303–308Google Scholar
  8. Bonneville JF, Cattin F, Poulignot D, Dietemann JL, Couturier M (1983) Value of high-resolution CT in the follow-up of prolactinomas treated with bromocriptine. In: Tolis G (ed) “Human Prolactin”. Raven Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Burry KA, Schiller HS, Mills R, Harris B, Heimich L (1978) Acute visual loss during pregnancy after bromocriptine-induced ovulation. Obstet Gynecol 52:19–22Google Scholar
  10. Buvat J, Buvat-Herbaut M (1982) Prolactine, bromocriptine et fonction gonadique de la femme: données récentes. I. Physiologie de la prolactine, physiopathologie et diagnostic des hyperprolactinémies. J Gyn Obst Biol Repr 11:341–353Google Scholar
  11. Buvat J, Buvat-Herbaut M (1982) Prolactine, bromocriptine et fonction gonadique de la femme: données récentes. II. Traitement des hyperprolactinémies féminines et autres indications de la bromocriptine. J Gyn Obst Biol Repr 11:509–521Google Scholar
  12. Campagnoli C, Belforte L, Massara F, Peris C, Molnatti GM (1981) Partial remission of hyperprolactinaemic amenorrhea after bromocriptine-induced pregnancy. J Endocrinol Invest 4:85–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Campagnoli C, Belforte L, Lotano M, Sandri A, Camanni F (1982) Prognosis of microprolactinoma and hyperprölactinemia in relation to pregnancy. In: Molinatti GM (ed) A clinical problem: Microprolactinoma. Diagnosis — treatment. Excerpta Medica, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  14. Canales ES, Garcia IC, Ruig JE, Zarate A (1981) Bromocriptine as prophylactic therapy in prolactinoma during pregnancy. Fertil Steril 36:524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Chang JR, Keye WR, Young JR, Wilson CB, Jaffe RB (1977) Detection, evaluation and treatment of pituitary microadenoma in patients with galactorrhea and amenorrhea. Am J Obstet Gynecol 128:350Google Scholar
  16. Corenblum B (1979) Successful outcome of ergocryptine-induced pregnancies in twenty-one women with prolactin-secreting pituitary adenomas. Fertil Steril 32:183–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Corenblum B, Taylor PJ (1978) Bromocriptine in pituitary tumours. Lancet 2:786PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cowden EA, Thomson JA (1979) Resolution of hyperprölactinemia after bromocriptine-induced pregnancy. Lancet 1:613PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Denavit MF, Lecointre C, Mallet E, De Menibus C, Rosier A (1977) Un accident de l’amniofoetographie: l’hypothyroidie. Arch Franc Ped 34:543–551Google Scholar
  20. Dietemann JL, Bonneville JF (1985) Radiological Diagnosis of Pituitary Diseases. In: Imura H (ed) The pituitary gland. Raven Press, New York, pp 341–361Google Scholar
  21. Dietemann JL, Portha C, Cattin F, Mollet E, Bonneville JF (1983) CT follow-up of microprolactinomas during bromocriptine-induced pregnancy. Neuroradiology 25:133–138PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Emperaire JC, Riemens V, Dubecq JJ, Palmade J, Leuret JPH (1972) Hypophysectomie d’urgence à deux mois de grossesse après induction de l’ovulation. Bordeaux Med 15:1901–1904Google Scholar
  23. Erdheim J, Stumme E (1909) Über die Schwangerschaftsveränderung der Hypophyse. Beitr Pathol Anat 46:1–122Google Scholar
  24. Etling N, Gehin-Poupue F, Vielh JP, Gautray JP (1979) The iodine content of amniotic fluid and placental transfer of iodinated drugs. Obstet Gynecol 53:376–380PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Gemzell C, Wang CF (1979) Outcome of pregnancy in women with pituitary adenoma. Fertil Steril 31:363–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Griffith RW, Turkalj I, Braun P (1979) Pituitary tumours during pregnancy in mothers treated with bromocriptine. Br J Clin Pharmacol 7:393–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hancock KW, Scott JS, Gibson RM, Lamb JT (1978) Pituitary tumours and pregnancy. Br Med J 1:1487–1488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hervet E, Barrat J, Pigne A, Darbois Y, Faguer C (1975) Adénome à prolactine. Hypophysectomie pendant la grossesse. Nouv Presse Méd 4:2392–2395Google Scholar
  29. Husami N, Jewelewicz R, Vande Wiele RL (1977) Pregnancy in patients with pituitary tumors. Fertil Steril 28:920PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Isaac AJ (1979) Resolution of hyperprölactinemia after bromocriptine-induced pregnancy. Lancet 1:784–785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jewelewicz R, Vande Wiele RL (1980) Clinical course and outcome of pregnancy in 25 patients with pituitary microadenomas. Am J Obstet Gynaecol 136:339Google Scholar
  32. Kletzky OA, Marrs RP, Howards WF, McCormick W, Mishell DR Jr (1980) Prolactin synthesis and release during pregnancy and Puerperium. Am J Obstet Gynecol 136:545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Lamberts SW, Seldenrath HJ, Kwa HG, Birkenhäger JC (1977) Transient bitemporal hemianopsia during pregnancy after treatment of galactorrhea-amenorrhea syndrome with bromocriptine. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 44:180–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lamberts SW, Klijn JG, Lange SA, Singh R, Stefanko SZ, Birkenhäger JC (1979) The incidence of complications during pregnancy after treatment of hyperprölactinemia with bromocriptine in patients with radiologically evident pituitary tumors. Fertil Steril 31:614–619PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Le Pogamp C, Grail JY, Massart C, Ramee A, Toulouse R (1979) Poussée évolutive d’adénome à prolactine au cours d’une grossesse après stérilité traitée. 2 observations. Nouv Presse Med 8:2009–2011PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Linquette M, Buvat J, Gauthier A, Gasnault JP, Pagniez T, Decoulx M, Laine E (1977) Apoplexie hypophysäre révélatrice d’un adénome à cellules prolactiniques au cours d’une grossesse permise par la bromocriptine. Nouv Presse Med 6:3525–3531PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Magyar DM, Marshall JR (1978) Pituitary tumors and pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 132:739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Mole RH (1974) Antenatal irradiation and childhood cancer. Br J Cancer 30:199–205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mornex R, Orgiazzi J, Hugues B, Gagnaire JP, Claustrat B (1978) Normal pregnancies after treatment of hyperprölactinemia with bromoergocryptine, despite suspected pituitary tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 47:290–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Morrison JC, Boyd M, Ermans AM (1973) The effects of renografin 60 on the fetal thyroid. Obstet Gynecol 42:95Google Scholar
  41. Nelson PB, Robinson AG, Archer DF, Maroon JC (1978) Symptomatic pituitary tumor enlargement after induced pregnancy: case report. J Neurosurg 49:283–287PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Portha C (1982) Adénome à prolactine et grossesse. Intérêt du scanner. Thèse Med, BesançonGoogle Scholar
  43. Ramussen AT (1934) The weight of the principal components of the normal hypophysis cerebri of the adult human femal. Amer J Anat 55:253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Reichlin S (1979) The prolactinoma problem. N Engl J Med 300:313–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Rjosk HK, Fahlbusch R, Von Werder K (1982) Influence of pregnancies on prolactinomas. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 100:337–346Google Scholar
  46. Rodesh F, Camus M, Ermans AM (1976) Adverse effect of amniofoetography on fetal thyroid function. Amer J Obstet Gynecol 126:723Google Scholar
  47. Thorner MO, Edwards CRW, Charlesworth M, Dacie JE, Moult PJA, Rees LH, Jones AE, Besser GM (1979) Pregnancy in patients presenting with hyperprolactinemia. Br J Med J 2:771–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tubiana M (1979) Problèmes posés par l’irradiation des femmes enceintes. Effets des radiations ionisantes sur l’embryon et le foetus. Bull Cancer 66:155–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Van Dalen JW, Greve EL (1977) Rapid deterioration of visual fields during bromocriptine-induced pregnancy in a patient with a pituitary adenoma. Br J Ophthalmol 61:728–733Google Scholar
  50. Van Roon E, Van der Vijver JCM, Gerretsen G, Hekster REM, Wattendorff RA (1981) Rapid regression of a suprasellar extending prolactinoma after bromocriptine treatment during pregnancy. Fertil Steril 36:173–177PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Ylikorkala O, Kivenen S, Ronnberg L (1980) Bromocriptine treatment during early human pregnancy: effect on the levels of prolactin, sex steroids and placental lactogen. Acta Endocrinol 95:412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Yuen BH (1978) Bromocriptine, pituitary tumours, and pregnancy. Lancet (Letter): 1314Google Scholar
  53. Zarate A, Canales ES, Alger M, Forsbach T (1979) The effect of pregnancy and lactation on pituitary secreting tumours. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh) 92:407–412Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jean-François Bonneville
    • 1
  • Françoise Cattin
    • 1
  • Jean-Louis Dietemann
    • 2
  1. 1.Département de NeuroradiologieCentre Hospitalier et Universitaire de BesançonBesançonFrance
  2. 2.Centre Hospitalier Régional, Service de RadiologieHospices Civils de StrasbourgStrasbourgFrance

Personalised recommendations