Physiologic Regulation of Class II Major Histocompatibility Complex Gene Expression

  • T. Collins
  • J. S. Pober
  • J. L. Strominger


T inducer (helper) cells can only recognize antigen in association with class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell [11]. The T cell antigen receptor, in addition to recognizing polymorphic self-class II determinants modified by nominal antigen, can recognize foreign polymorphic (allogeneic) class II determinants, with or without nominal antigen [107]. Recognition of foreign class II determinants generates alloactivated T helper cells which are involved in generating specific effector cells. Inducible expression of class II antigens may confer accessory capacity upon cells not generally thought of as components of the immune system. Such cells could either present nominal antigen or, in the case of transplantation, stimulate an allogeneic response. Therefore, mechanisms regulating the expression of these proteins may play a crucial role in modulating immune responsiveness. To understand possible regulatory mechanisms, a knowledge of the general structural features of these proteins and the coresponding genes is important.


Accessory Cell Invariant Chain Nominal Antigen Immune Interferon Human Umbilical Vein Endothelium 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Aberer W, Stingl L, Pogantsch S, Stingl G (1984) Effect of glucocorticosteroids on epidermal cell-induced immune responses. J Immunol 133:792–796PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Accolla RS (1983) Human B cell variants immunoselected against a single Ia antigen subset have lost expression of several Ia antigen subsets. J Exp Med 157:1053–1058PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Accolla RS, Carra G, Guardiola J (1985) Reactivation by a trans-acting factor of human MHC-Ia gene expression in interspecies hybrids between an la-negative human B cell variant and an Ia-positive mouse B cell lymphoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:5145–5149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Acres RB, Lamb JR, Feldman M (1985) Effects of PDGF and EGF on antigen-induced proliferation of human T-cell lines. Immunol 54:9–16Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Alexander S, Hubbard SC, Strominger JL (1984) HLA-DR antigens of autologous melanoma and B lymphoblastoid cell lines: differences in glycosylation but not protein structure. J Immunol 133:315–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Austin P, Trowsdale J, Rudd C, Bodmer W, Feldmann M, Lamb J (1985) Functional expression of HLA-DP genes transfected into mouse fibroblasts. Nature 313:61–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Baglioni C (1985) Mechanism of action of interferons. In: Streilein et al. (eds) Advances in gene technology: molecular biology of the immune system. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 53–55Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barclay AN, Mason DW (1982) Induction of Ia antigen in rat epidermal cells and gut epithelium by immunologic stimuli. J Exp Med 156:1665–1676PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Basham TY, Merigan TC (1983) Recombinant interferon-γ increases HLA-DR synthesis and expression. J Immunol 130:1492–1494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Beller DI, Unanue ER (1981) Regulation of macrophage populations. II. Synthesis and expression of Ia antigens by peritoneal exudate macrophages is a transient event. J Immunol 126:263–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Benacerraf B (1981) Role of MHC gene products in immune regulation. Science 212:1229–1238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ben-Nun A, Glimcher LH, Weis JH, Seidman JG (1984) Functional expression of a cloned I-Aβ k gene in B-lymphoma cells. Science 223:825–827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bevilacqua MF, Pober JS, Wheeler ME, Mendrick D, Cotran RS, Gimbrone MD (1985) Interleukin–1 acts on vascular endothelial cells to increase their adhesivity for blood leukocytes. J Clin Invest 76:2003–2011PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Boss JM, Strominger JL (1984) Cloning and sequence analysis of a DC–3β gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:5199–5203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Breathnach SM, Katz SI (1983) Keratinocytes synthesize Ia antigen in acute cutaneous graft-vs-host disease. J Immunol 131:2741–2745PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Burger DR, Vetto RM (1982) Vascular endothelium as a major participant in T-lymphocyte immunity. Cell Immunol 70:357–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Burger, DR, Vetto RM, Hamblin A, Dumonde DC (1982) T-lymphocyte activation by antigen presented by HLA-DR compatible endothelial cells. In: Nossel, Vogel (eds) Pathobiology of the endothelial cell. Academic, London, pp 387–407Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Burger DR, Vetto RM, Hamblin A, Goldstein A, Hubbard M, Dumonde DC (1981) Endothelial cell presentation of antigen to human T cells. Hum Immunol 3:209–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Chesnut RW, Colon SM, Grey HM (1982) Antigen presentation by normal B cells, B cell tumors and macrophages: functional and biochemical comparison. J Immunol 128:1764–1768PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chu ET, Lareau M, Rosenwasser LJ, Dinarello CA, Geha RS (1985) Antigen presentation by EBV-B cells to resting and activated T celles: role of interleukin 1. J Immunol 134:1676–1681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Claesson-Welsh L, Barker PG, Larhammar D, Rask L, Ruddle FH, Peterson PA (1984) The gene encoding the human class II antigen-associated γ-chain is located on chromosome 6. Immunogenetics 20:89–93PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cline J, Golde DW (1979) Cellular interactions in haematopoiesis. Nature 277:177–181PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Collins T, Korman AJ, Wake CT, Boss JM, Kappes DJ, Fiers W, Ault KA, Gimbrone MA, Strominger JL, Pober JS (1984 a) Immune interferon activates multiple class II MHC genes and the associated invariant chain gene in human endothelial cells and dermal fibroblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:4917–4921PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Collins T, Krensky AM, Clayberger C, Fiers W, Gimbrone MA, Burakoff SJ, Pober JS (1984 b) Human cytolytic T lymphocyte interactions with vascular endothelium and fibroblasts: role of effector and target cell molecules. J Immunol 133:1878–1884PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Collins T, Ginsburg D, Boss JM, Orkin SH, Pober JS (1985) Cultured human endothelial cells express platelet derived growth factor B chain: cDNA cloning and structural analysis. Nature 316:748–750PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Cowing C, Chapdelaine JM (1983) T cells discriminate between Ia antigens expressed on allogeneic accessory cells and B cells: a potential function for carbohydrate side chains on Ia molecules. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:6000–6004PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    deWaal RMW, Bogman MJJ, Maass CN, Cornelissen LMH, Tax WJM, Koene RAP (1983) Variable expression of Ia antigens on the vascular endothelium of mouse skin allografts. Nature 303:426–429Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    DiCorleto PG, Bowen-Pope DF (1983) Cultured endothelial cells produce a platelet-derived growth factor-like protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:1919–2023PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dvorak HF, Mihm MC, Dvorak AM, Barnes BA, Manscav EJ, Galli SJ (1979) Rejection of first-set skin allografts in man. The microvasculature is the critical target of the immune response. J Exp Med 150:322PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Erb P, Ramila G, Studer S, Loeffler H, Cecka JM, Conscience JF, Feldman M (1984) Heterogeneity of accessory cells. Immunobiology 168:141153Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fellous M, Nir U, Wallach D, Merlin G, Rubinstein M, Revel M (1982) Interferon-dependent induction of mRNA for the major histocompatibility antigens in human fibroblasts and lymphoid cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:3082–3086PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Folsom V, Gold DP, White J, Marrack P, Kappler J, Tonegawa S (1984) Functional and inducible expression of a transfected murine class II MHC gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:2045–2049PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Fontana A, Fierz W, Wekerle H (1984) Astrocytes present myelin basic protein to en-cephalitogenic T-cell lines. Nature 307:273–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Friedman RL, Stark GR (1985) α Interferon-induced transcription of HLA and metal-lothionein genes containing homologous upstream sequences. Nature 314:637–639Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Germain RN, Norcross MA, Margulies DH (1983) Functional expression of a transfected murine class II MHC gene. Nature 306:190–194PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Germain RN, Lechler RI, Norcross MA, Bentler DM, Margulies DH (1985) Ia expression, structure, and function analyzed by DNA-mediated gene transfer. In: Streilein et al. (eds) Advances in gene technology: molecular biology of the immune system. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 167–168Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gillies SD, Folsom V, Tonegawa S (1984) Cell-type specific enhancer element associated with a mouse MHC gene, Eβ. Nature 310:594–597PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gladstone P, Pious D (1980) Identification of a trans-acting function regulating HLA-DR expression in a DR-negative B cell variant. Somatic Cell Genet 6:285–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Glimcher LH, Kim KJ, Green I, Paul WE (1982) Ia antigen-bearing B cell tumor lines can present protein antigen and alloantigen in a MHC-restricted fashion to antigen-reactive T cells. J Exp Med 155:445–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gonwa TA, Stobo JD (1984) Differential expression of Ia molecules by human monocytes. J Clin Invest 74:859–866PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Gonwa TA, Picker LJ, Raff HV, Goyert SM, Silver J, Stobo JD (1983) Antigen-presenting capabilities of human monocytes correlates with their expression of HLA-DS, an Ia determinant distinct from HLA-DR. J Immunol 130:706–711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hanto DW, Hopt UT, Hoffman R, Simmons RL (1982) Lymphocyte recruitment, regional blood flow, and vascular permeability at sites of allogeneic cellular interactions. J Immunol 129:2437–2443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Hirschberg H, Evensen SA, Henriksen T, Thorsby E (1975) The human mixed lymphocyte-endothelium culture interaction. Transplantation 19:495–507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Hirschberg H, Bergh OJ, Thorsby E (1980) Antigen vascular presenting properties of human endothelial cells. J Exp Med 152:249s–255sPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hood L, Kronenberg M, Hunkapiller T (1985) T cell antigen receptors and the immunoglobulin supergene family. Cell 40:225–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Houghton AN, Thomson TM, Gross D, Oettgen HF, Old LJ (1984) Surface antigens of melanoma and melanocytes. Specificity of induction of Ia antigens by human γ-interferon. J Exp Med 160:255–269PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Howard JC (1985) Immunological help at last. Nature 314:494–495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Howard M, Paul WE (1983) Regulation of B-cell growth and differentiation by soluble factors. Annu Rev Immunol 1:307–333PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Howell DN, Berger AE, Cresswell P (1982) Human T-B lymphoblast hybrids express HLA-DR specificities not expressed by either parent. Immunogenetics 15:199–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Johnson HM, Torres BA (1985) Peptide growth factors PDGF, EFG, and FGF regulate immune interferon production. J Immunol 134:2824PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 50a.
    Kappes DJ, Arnot D, Okada K, Strominger JL (1984) Structure and polymorphism of the HLA class II SB light chain genes. EMBO J 3:2985–2993PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 51.
    Kaufman JF, Strominger JL (1982) HLA-DR light chain has a polymorphic N-terminal region and a conserved Ig-like C-terminal region. Nature 297:694–697PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 52.
    Kaufman JF, Strominger JL (1983) The extracellular region of light chains from human and murine MHC class II antigens consists of 2 domains. J Immunol 130:808–817PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 53.
    Kaufman JF, Auffray C, Korman AJ, Shackelford DA, Strominger JL (1984) The class II molecules of human and murine major histocompatibility complex. Cell 36:1–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 54.
    Kelley A, Trowsdale J (1985) Complete nucleotide sequence of a functional HLA-DPβ gene and the region between the DPβ1 and DPαl genes: Comparison of the 5’ ends of the HLA class II genes. Nucleic Acids Res 13:1607–1621Google Scholar
  56. 55.
    Kelley VE, Fiers W, Strom TB (1984) Cloned human interferon-gamma, but not interferon beta or alpha induces expression of HLA-DR determinants by fetal monocytes and myeloid leukemic cell lines. J Immunol 132:240–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 56.
    Koch N, Wong GH, Schrader JW (1984) Ia antigens and associated invariant chain are induced simultaneously in lines of T-dependent mast cells by immune interferon. J Immunol 132:1361–1369PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 57.
    Koeffler HP, Ranyard J, Yelton L, Billing R, Bohman R (1984) γ-interferon induces expression of the HLA-D antigens on normal and leukemic human myeloid cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:4080–4084PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 58.
    Korman AJ (1985) Structure and expression of human class II MHC antigens. PhD thesis, Harvard UniversityGoogle Scholar
  60. 59.
    Korman AJ, Boss JM, Spies T, Sorrentino R, Okada K, Strominger JL (1985) Genetic complexity of human class II histocompatibility antigens. Immunol Rev (in press)Google Scholar
  61. 60.
    Kvist S, Wiman K, Claesson L, Peterson PA, Dobberstein B (1982) Membrane insertion and oligomeric assembly of HLA-DR histocompatibility antigens. Cell 29:61–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 61.
    Lampert I A, Suitters AJ, Chisholm PM (1981) Expression of Ia antigens on epidermal keratinocytes in graft-versus-host disease. Nature 293:149–151PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 62.
    Lanzavecchia A (1985) Antigen-specific interaction between T and B cells. Nature 314:537–539PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 63.
    Larhammar D, Schenning L, Gustafsson K, Wiman K, Claesson L, Rask L, Peterson PA (1982) Complete amino acid sequence of an HLA-DR antigen-like β chain as predicated from the nucleotide sequence: similarities with immunoglobulins and HLA-A, -B, and -C antigens. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:3687–3691PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 64.
    Larhammar D, Hyldig-Nielsen JJ, Servenius B, Anderson G, Rask L, Peterson PA (1983) Exon-intron organization and complete nucleotide sequence of a human major histocompatibility antigen DCβ gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:7313–7317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 65.
    Larhammar D, Hammerling U, Denaro M, L und T, Flavell RA, Rask L, Peterson PA (1983) Structure of the murine immune response I-Aβ locus: sequence of the I-Aβ gene and an adjacent β chain second domain exon. Cell 34:179–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 66.
    Larhammar D, Anderson G, Bill P, Bohme J, Claesson L, Denaro M, Emmoth E, Gustafsson K, Hammerling U, Heldin E, Hyldig-Nielsen JJ, Und P, Schenning L, Servenius B, Widmark E, Rask L, Peterson P (1983) Molecular analysis of human class II transplantation antigens and their genes. Hum Immunol 8:95–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 67.
    Larhammar D, Servenius B, Rask L, Peterson PA (1985) Characterization of an HLA-DRβ pseudogene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:1475–1479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 68.
    Lechler RI, Norcross MA, Germain RN (1985) Qualitative and quantitative studies of antigen presenting cell function using I-A transfected cells. In: Streilein et al. (eds) Advances in Gene Technology: molecular biology of the immune system. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 223–224Google Scholar
  70. 69.
    Levine F, Pious D (1984) Revertants from the HLA class II regulatory mutant 6.1.6: implications for the regulation of Ia gene expression. J Immunol 132:959–962PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 70.
    Levine F, Erlich HA, Mach B, Pious D (1985) Transcriptional regulation of HLA class II and invariant chain genes. J Immunol 134:637–640PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 71.
    Linch DC, Nadler LM, Luther EA, Lipton JM (1984) Discordant expression of human Ia-like antigens on hematopoietic progenitor cells. J Immunol 132:2324–2329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 72.
    Lipsky PE, Kettman JR (1982) Accessory cells unrelated to mononuclear phagocytes and not of bone marrow origin. Immunol Today 3:36–42Google Scholar
  74. 73.
    Littman DR, Thomas Y, Maddon PJ, Chess L, Axel R (1985) The isolation and sequence of the gene encoding T8: a molecule defining functional classes of T lymphocytes. Cell 40:237–246PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 74.
    Loosmore S, Gladstone P, Pious D, Jerry LM, Tamaoki T (1982) Control of HLA-DR antigen gene expression at the pretranslational level: comparison of an HLA-DR-positive B lymphoblastoid cell line and its HLA-DR-negative variant. Immunogenetics 15:139–150PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 75.
    Londei M, Lamb JR, Bottazzo GF, Feldman M (1984) Epithelial cells expressing aberrant MHC class II determinants can present antigen to cloned human T cells. Nature 312:639–641PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 76.
    Long EO, Mach B, Accolla RS (1984) la-negative B-cell variants reveal a coordinate regulation in the transcription of the HLA class II gene family. Immunogenetics 19:349–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 77.
    Lu CY, Calamai EG, Unanue ER (1979) A defect in the antigen-presenting function of macrophages from neonatal mice. Nature 282:327–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 78.
    Lu CY, Beller DI, Unanue ER (1980) During ontogeny, la-bearing accessory cells are found early in the thymus but late in the spleen. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:1597–1601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 79.
    Malissen B, Steinmetz M, McMillan M, Pierres M, Hood L (1983) Expression of I-Ak class II genes in mouse L cells after DNA-mediated gene transfer. Nature 305:440–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 80.
    Malissen B, Price MP, Goverman JM, McMillan M, White J, Kappler J, Marrack P, Pierres M, Pierres A, Hood L (1984) Gene transfer of H–2 class II genes: antigen presentation by mouse fibroblast and hamster B-cell lines. Cell 36:319–327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 81.
    Malynn BA, Wortis HH (1984) Role of antigen-specific B cells in the induction of SRBC-specific T cell proliferation. J Immunol 132:2253–2258PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 82.
    Mathis DJ, Benoist CO, Williams V, Kanter MR, McDevitt HO (1983) The murine E immune response gene.Cell 32:745–754PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 83.
    Matis LA, Glimcher LH, Paul WF, Schwartz RH (1983) Magnitude of response of histocompatibility-restricted T cell clones is a function of the product of the concentrations of antigen and Ia molecules. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:6019–6023PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 84.
    Milton AD, Fabre JW (1985) Massive induction of donor type class I and class II MHC antigens in rejecting cardiac allografts in the rat. J Exp Med 161:98–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 85.
    Moyer CF, Reinisch CL (1984) Ia expression and antigen presentation by vascular smooth muscle cells. Fed Proc 43:972Google Scholar
  87. 86.
    Nakamura M, Manser T, Pearson G, Daley MJ, Gefter ML (1984) Effect of immune IFN on the immune response in vivo and on gene expression in vitro. Nature 307:381–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 87.
    Nepom JT, Benacerraf B, Germain RN (1981) Analysis of Ir gene function using monoclonal antibodies: independent regulation of GAT and GLPhe T cell response by I-A and I-E subregion products on a single accessory cell population. J Immunol 127:31PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 88.
    Noelle R, Krammer PH, Ohara J, Uhr JW, Vitetta ES (1984) Increased expression of Ia antigens on resting B cells: an additional role for B-cell growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 81:6149–6153PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 89.
    Norcross MA, Bentley DM, Margulies DH, Germain RN (1984) Membrane Ia expression and antigen-presenting accessory cell function of L cells transfected with class II major histocompatibility complex genes. J Exp Med 160:1316–1337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 90.
    Nunez G, Giles RC, Ball EJ, Hurley CK, Capra JD, Stastny P (1984) Expression of HLA-DR, MB, MT, and SB antigens on human mononuclear cells: identification of two phenotypically distinct monocyte populations. J Immunol 133:1300–1306PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 91.
    Okada K, Boss J, Prentice H, Spies T, Mengler R, Auffray C, Lillie J, Grossberger D, Strominger JL (1985) Gene organization of the DC and DX subregions of the human major histocompatibility complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:3410–3414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 92.
    Okada K, Prentice H, Boss J, Levy D, Kappes D, Spies T, Raghupathy R, Mengler R, Auffray C, Strominger JL (1985) SB subregion of the human major histocompatibility complex: gene organization, allelic polymorphism and expression in transformed cells. EMBO J 4:739–748PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 93.
    Peterlin BM, Hardy KJ (1985) Changes in chromatin structure associated with HLA-DR alpha gene activation. Fed Proc 44:783Google Scholar
  95. 94.
    Pious D, Hawley P, Forrest G (1973) Isolation and characterization of HLA variants in cultured human lymphoid cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 70:1397–1401PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 95.
    Pober JS, Collins T, Gimbrone MA, Cotran RS, Gitlin JD, Fiers W, Clayberger C, Krensky AM, Burakoff SJ, Reiss CS (1983) Lymphocytes recognize human vascular endothelial and dermal fibroblast Ia antigens induced by recombinant immune interferon. Nature 305:726–729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 96.
    Pober JS, Gimbrone MA, Cotran RS, Reiss CS, Burakoff SJ, Fiers W, Ault K (1983) Ia expression by vascular endothelium is inducible by activated T cells and by human immune interferon. J Exp Med 157:1339–1353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 97.
    Pober JS, Gimbrone MA, Collins T, Cotran RS, Ault KA, Fiers W, Krensky AM, Clayberger C, Reiss C, Burakoff SJ (1984) Interactions of T lymphocytes with human vascular endothelial cells: role of endothelial cell surface antigens. Immunobiology 168:483–494PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 98.
    Rabourdin-Combe C, Mach B (1983) Expression of HLA-DR antigens the surface of mouse L cells co-transfected with cloned human genes. Nature 303:670–674PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 99.
    Ramila G, Erb P (1983) Accessory cell-dependent T selection of specific T cell functions. Nature 304:442–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 100.
    Ramila G, Studer S, Mischler S, Erb P (1983) Evaluation of Ia+ tumor cell lines and peritoneal exudate macrophages as accessory cells: differential requirements for the activation of certain T cell functions. J Immunol 131:2714–2718PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 101.
    Rock K, Benacerraf B, Abbas A (1984) Antigen presentation by hapten specific B lymphocytes. I. Role of surface immunoglobulin receptors. J Exp Med 160:1102– 1112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 102.
    Roehm NW, Leibson HJ, Zlotnik A, Kappler J, Marrack P, Cambier JC (1984) In-terleukin-induced increase in Ia expression by normal mouse B cells. J Exp Med 160:679–694PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 103.
    Rosa F, Hatat D, Abadie A, Wallach D, Revel M, Fellous M (1983) Differential regulation of HLA-DR mRNAs and cell surface antigens by interferon. EMBO J 2:1585–1589PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 104.
    Saito H, Maki RA, Clayton LK, Tonegawa S (1983) Complete primary structures of the Eβ chain and its gene of the mouse MHC. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 80:5520–5524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 105.
    Schamboeck A, Korman AJ, Kamb A, Strominger JL (1983) Organization of the transcriptional unit of a human class II histocompatibility antigen: HLA-DR heavy chain. Nucleic Acids Res 11:8663–8674PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 106.
    Schlossman SF, Chess L, Humphreys RE, Strominger JL (1976) Distribution of Ia-like molecules on the surface of normal and leukemic human cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 73:1299–1303Google Scholar
  108. 107.
    Schwartz R (1985) T-lymphocyte recognition of antigen in association with gene products of the MHC. Ann Rev Immunol 3:237–261Google Scholar
  109. 108.
    Snyder DS, Beller DI, Unanue ER (1982) Prostaglandins modulate macrophage Ia expression. Nature 299:163–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 109.
    Sobel RA, Blanchette BW, Bhan AK, Colvin RB (1984) The immunopathology of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. II. Endothelial cell Ia increases prior to inflammatory cell infiltration. J Immunol 132:2402–2407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 110.
    Steeg PS, Moore RN, Johnson HM, Oppenheim J J (1982) Regulation of murine macrophage Ia antigen expression by a lymphokine with immune interferon activity. J Exp Med 156:1780–1793PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 111.
    Steeg PS, Johnson HM, Oppenheim JJ (1982) Regulation of murine macrophage Ia antigen expression by an immune interferon-like lymphokine: inhibitory effect of endotoxin. J Immunol 129:2402–2406PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 112.
    Sztein MB, Steeg PS, Johnson MM, Oppenheim J J (1984) Regulation of human peripheral blood monocyte or antigen expression in vitro by lymphokines and recombinant interferons. J Clin Invest 73:556–565PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 113.
    Umetsu DT, Pober JS, Jabara HJ, Fiers W, Yunis E, Burakoff SJ, Reiss CS, Geha RS (1985) Human dermal fibroblasts present tetanus toxoid antigen to antigen specific T cell clones. J Clin Invest 76:254–260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 114.
    Unanue E, Beller E, Lu E, Allen PM (1984) Antigen presentation: comments on its regulation and mechanism. J Immunol 132:1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 115.
    Wagner CR, Vetto RM, Burger DR (1984) The mechanism of antigen presentation by endothelial cells.Immunobiology 168:453–469Google Scholar
  117. 116.
    Weis JH, Seidman JG (1985) The expression of major histocompatibility antigens under metallothionein gene promotor control. J Immunol 134:1999–2003PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 117.
    Weis JH, Murre C (1985) Differential expression of H–2Dd and H–2Ld MHC antigens. J Exp Med 161:356–365PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Collins
  • J. S. Pober
  • J. L. Strominger

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations