Development of Models and External Forces in the Experiments
The experimental stress analysis was performed on resin models with a uniform wall-thickness of 0.5 cm. Their outlines and dimensions are listed in Table 1. The models represent the lower half of the neurocranium, that is, the skull base and adjacent regions of the side walls. At the section plane, the missing upper half of the braincase can be replaced by section forces. In the experiments, the models were turned upside down so that they were supported on their free margins. The reaction forces in the supporting plane, one in the direction of the wall (pressure) and one perpendicular to it (friction), are assumed to correspond to the section forces (Fig. 5). The effect of the horizontal force component that prevents the shells from becoming wider is similar to that of the dural septa, that may perhaps act as braces for the curved cranial walls (see Chap. 5). The section plane was chosen so that a force applied perpendicularly to the occipital condyles in the experiment coincides with the inclined direction of this force in the human skull (Fig. 5). In the figures, the models are depicted in the “natural” orientation, i.e., they were turned over again.
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