Insect Iridescent Viruses

  • D. C. Kelly
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 116)


Insects act as hosts to a variety of viruses, some of which are also able to infect plants, some of which are also able to infect animals other than insects, and some which apparently multiply exclusively in insects. The latter group comprises the granulosis and nuclear polyhedrosis viruses (Bellett 1969), the cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses (Xeros 1952), and the entomopox viruses (Vago 1963), all of which are “occluded” with a protein matrix in the later stages of infection in insects; and also viruses free from this matrix, the so-called non-occluded viruses (Grace and Mercer 1965) comprising a heterogeneous group including picorna-, birna-, parvo- and iridescent viruses. By far the largest group of non-occluded viruses is the iridescent virus group, with some 30 viruses provisionally recognized (Tinsley and Kelly 1970; Tinsley and Harrap 1978); a number of recently described viruses are also eligible for inclusion within this group.


Virus Particle Infected Larva Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus African Swine Fever Virus Frog Virus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allison AC, Burke DC (1961) The nucleic acid content of viruses. J Gen Virol 27: 181–191Google Scholar
  2. Almeida JD, Waterson AP, Plowright W (1967) The morphological characteristics of African swine fever virus and its resemblance toTipulairidescent virus. Arch Ges Virusforsch 20: 392–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson JF (1970) An iridescent virus infecting the mosquitoAedes stimulans. J Insect Pathol 15: 219–224Google Scholar
  4. Anderson ES, Armstrong JA, Niven JSF (1959) Fluorescence microscopy: observations of virus growing with amino acridines. 9th symposium of the Society for General Microbiology pp 224–234Google Scholar
  5. Armstrong J A, Niven JSF (1957) Histochemical observations on cellular and virus nucleic acids. Nature 180: 1335–1336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bailey L, Ball BV, Woods RD (1976) An iridovirus from bees. J Gen Virol 31: 459–461PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Barray S, Devauchelle G (1979) Etude des polypeptides de structure du virus iridescent deChilo suppressalis(iridovirus type 6). Can J Microbiol 25: 841–849PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Batson BS, Johnston MRL, Arnold MK, Kelly DC (1976) An iridescent virus fromSimuliumsp. (Diptera Simuliidae) in Wales. J Invertebr Pathol 27:133–135Google Scholar
  9. Bellett AJD (1965 a) The multiplication ofSericesthisiridescent virus in cell cultures fromAntheraeaeucalyptiScott II. An in vitro assay for the virus. Virology 26:127–131PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bellett AJD (1965 b) The multiplication of Sericesthis iridescent virus in cell cultures fromAnther aea eucalyptiScott. III. Quantitative experiments. Virology 26:132–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Bellett AJD (1968) The iridescent virus group. Adv Virus Res 13: 225–241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bellett AJD (1969) Relationships amongst polyhedrosis and granulosis viruses of insects. Virology 37: 117–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bellett AJD, Inman RB (1967) Some properties of deoxyribonucleic acid preparations fromChilo, Sericesthis, and Tipula iridescent viruses. J Mol Biol 25: 424–437Google Scholar
  14. Bellett AJD, Fenner F (1968) Base sequence homology among some cytoplasmic deoxyriboviruses of vertebrate and invertebrate animals. J Virol 2: 1374–1379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Black PN, Blair CD, Butcher A, Capiner JC, Happ GM (1981) Biochemistry and ultrastructure of iridescent virus type 29. J Invertebr Pathol 38: 12–21Google Scholar
  16. Carey GP, Lescott T, Robertson JS, Spencer LK, Kelly DC (1978) Three African isolates of small iridescent viruses. Virology 85: 307–309PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Carrascosa JL, Carazo JM, Carrascosa AL, Garcia N, Santisteban A, Vinuela E (1983) General morphology and capsid fine structure of African swine fever virus particles. Virology 132: 160–177Google Scholar
  18. Carter JB (1971) A virus disease of leatherjackets. PhD Thesis, University of GlasgowGoogle Scholar
  19. Carter JB (1973 a) The mode of transmission ofTipulairidescent virus. I. Source of infection. J Invertebr Pathol 21:123–130Google Scholar
  20. Carter JB (1973 b) The mode of transmission ofTipulairidescent virus. II. Route of infection. J Invertebr Pathol 21:136–143Google Scholar
  21. Carter JB (1973 c) Detection and assay ofTipulairidescent virus by the latex agglutination test. J Gen Virol 21:181–185Google Scholar
  22. Chapman HC, Peterson JJ, Woodward DB, Clark TB (1968) New records of parasites of ceratopogonidae. Mosquito News 28: 122–125Google Scholar
  23. Chapman HC, Clark TB, Anthony DW, Glenn FE (1971) An iridescent virus from the larvae ofCorethralla brakelyi(Diptera: Chaoboridae) in Louisiana. J Invertebr Pathol 18:284–287PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Clark TB, Kellen WR, Lum PTM (1965) A mosquito iridescent virus (MIV) fromAedes taeniorhynchus(Wiedemann). J Invertebr Pathol 7:519–524PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Day MF (1965) Sericesthis iridescent virus infection of the adultGalleria. J Invertebr Pathol 7: 102–108Google Scholar
  26. Day MF, Mercer EH (1964) Properties of an iridescent virus from the beetleSericesthis pruinosa. Aust J Biol Sci 17: 892–899Google Scholar
  27. Delius H, Darai G, Flugel RM (1984) Analysis of insect iridescent virus type 6: Evidence for circular permutation and terminal redundancy. J Virol 49:609–514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Devauchelle G (1979) Ultrastructural characterization of an iridovirus from the marine worm Nereis diversicolor. Virology 81: 237–247Google Scholar
  29. Elliott RM, Kelly DC (1980) From virus 3 replication: induction and intracellular distribution of polypeptides in infected cells. J Virol 33: 28–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Elliott RM, Lescott T, Kelly DC (1977) Serological relationships of iridescent virus type 25. Virology 81: 309–316PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Federici BA (1980) Isolation of an iridovirus from two terrestrial isopods, the pillbug,Armadillidium vulgare, and the sow bug,Porcellio dilatatus. J Invertebr Pathol 36: 373–381Google Scholar
  32. Federici BA, Hazard EI (1974) Iridovirus and cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus in the freshwater daphnidSimocephalus expinosus. Nature 254: 327–328Google Scholar
  33. Fowler M, Robertson JS (1972) Iridescent virus infection in field populations ofWiseana cervinata(Lepidoptera: Hepialidae) andWitlesiasp. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in New Zealand. J Invertebr Pathol 19:154–157Google Scholar
  34. Franklin RM (1976) Structure and synthesis of bacteriophage PM2 with particular emphasis on the viral lipid bilayer. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 68: 108–159Google Scholar
  35. Fukaya M, Nasu S (1966) AChiloiridescent virus (CIV) from the rice stem borerChilo suppressalisWalker (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae). Appl Ent Zool 1:69–76Google Scholar
  36. Glitz DG, Hills GJ, Rivers CF (1968) A comparison of theTipulaandSericesthisiridescent viruses. J Gen Virol 3: 209–220Google Scholar
  37. Goorha R, Willis DB, Granoff A (1977) Macromolecular synthesis in cells infected by frog virus 3. VI. Frog virus 3 replication is dependent on the cell nucleus. J Virol 21: 802–805PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Grace TDC, Mercer EH (1965) A new virus of the saturniidAntheraea eucalypti: Scott. J Invertebr Pathol 7:214–243Google Scholar
  39. Hasan S, Croizier G, Vago C, Duthoit JL (1970) Infection a virus irisant dans une population naturelle d’Aedes detritusHaliday en France. Ann Zool Ecol Anim 2: 295–301Google Scholar
  40. Hibbin J A, Kelly DC (1982) Iridescent virus type 22 DNA. Arch Virol 68: 9–18Google Scholar
  41. Kalmakoff J, Tremaine JH (1968) Physicochemical properties ofTipulairidescent virus. J Virol 2: 738–744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Kalmakoff J, Moore S, Pottinger S (1972) An iridescent virus fromCostelytra zealandica: serological study. J Invertebr Pathol 20: 70–76Google Scholar
  43. Kanyuka VU, Pronina AD (1970) Study of the cytopathological changes in tissues of insects infected by iridescent virus of a crane fly. Microbiol J (Kiev) 30: 348–354Google Scholar
  44. Kelly DC ( 1972 a) The replication of some iridescent virus in cell cultures. Ph D Thesis, University of OxfordGoogle Scholar
  45. Kelly DC (1972 b) Patterns of nucleic acid synthesis in iridescent virus infected cells. Monogr Virol 6:9–11Google Scholar
  46. Kelly DC (1975) Frog virus 3 replication: electron microscope observations on the sequence of infection in chick embryo fibroblasts. J Gen Virol 26: 71–86PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Kelly DC (1976) Iridescent virus type 22 replication inAedes aegypticells in culture. J Invertebr Pathol 27: 415–418Google Scholar
  48. Kelly DC (1980) Suppression of baculovirus and iridescent virus replication in dually infected cells. Microbiologica 3: 177–185Google Scholar
  49. Kelly DC (1981) Non-occluded viruses. In: Davidson EW (ed) Pathogenesis of invertebrate microbial diseases. Allanheld Osmun, pp 39–60Google Scholar
  50. Kelly DC, Tinsley TW (1972) The proteins of iridescent virus types 2 and 6. J Invertebr Pathol 19: 273–275Google Scholar
  51. Kelly DC, Robertson J (1973) Icosahedral cytoplasmic deoxyriboviruses. J Gen Virol 21: 17–41Google Scholar
  52. Kelly DC, Tinsley TW (1973) Ribonucleic acid polymerase activity associated with particles of iridescent virus types 2 and 6. J Invertebr Pathol 22: 199–203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kelly DC, Vance DE (1973) The lipid content of two iridescent viruses. J Gen Virol 21: 417–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kelly DC, Avery RJ (1974) The DNA content of four small iridescent viruses: genome size redundancy and homology determined by renaturation kinetics. Virology 57: 425–435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Kelly DC, Tinsley TW (1974a) Iridescent virus replication: a microscope study ofAedes aegyptiandAntheraea eucalypticells in culture infected with iridescent virus types 2 and 6. Microbiologica 9: 75–93Google Scholar
  56. Kelly DC, Tinsley TW (1974b) Iridescent virus replication: patterns of nucleic acid synthesis in insect cells infected with iridescent virus types 2 and 6. J Invertebr Pathol 24: 169–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kelly DC, Edwards ML, Robertson JS (1978) The use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect and discriminate between small iridescent viruses. Ann Appl Biol 90: 369–374Google Scholar
  58. Kelly DC, Ayres MD, Lescott T, Robertson JS, Happ GM (1979) A small iridescent virus (type 29) isolated fromTenebrio molitor: a comparison of its proteins and antigens with six other iridescent viruses. J Gen Virol 42: 95–105Google Scholar
  59. Kelly DC, Elliott RM, Blair GE (1980) Phosphorylation of iridescent virus polypeptidesin vitro. J Gen Virol 48: 205–211Google Scholar
  60. Kelly DC, Brown DA, Allen CJ, Ayres MD, Walker IO (1983) Properties of the major nucleocapsid protein ofHeliothis zeasingly emveloped nuclear polyhedrosis virus. J Gen Virol 64: 399–408Google Scholar
  61. Klug A, Franklin RE, Humphreys Oven SPF (1959) The crystal structure ofTipulairidescent virus as determined by Bragg reflection of visible light. Biochem Biophys Acta 32: 303–313Google Scholar
  62. Krell P, Lee PE (1974) Polypeptides inTipulairidescent virus and in TlV-infected hemocytes ofGalleria mellonella(L.) larvae. Virology 60:315–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Lee PE, Brownrigg SP (1983) Effect of virus inactivation onTipulairidescent virus-cell relationships. J Ultrastruct Res 79: 189–197Google Scholar
  64. Leutenegger R (1967) Early events ofSericesthisiridescent virus infection in haemocytes ofGalleria mellonella. Virology 32: 109–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Linley JR, Nielsen HT (1968) Transmission of a mosquito iridescent virus inAedes taeniorhynchus. J Invertebr Pathol 12: 17–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Manyokov VF (1977) Fine structure of the iridescent virus type 1 capsid. J Gen Virol 36: 73–79Google Scholar
  67. Mathieson WB, Lee PE (1981) Cytology and autoradiography ofTipulairidescent virus infection of insect suspension cell cultures. J Ultrastruct Res 74: 59–68PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Mercer EH, Day MF (1965) The structure ofSericesthisiridescent virus and of its crystals. Biochim Biophys Acta 102: 590–599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Mitsuhashi J (1966) Multiplication ofChiloiridescent virus inChilo suppressalistissues cultivated in vitro. Appl Ent Zool 1: 199–206Google Scholar
  70. Mitsuhashi J, Koyama K (1967) Stability ofChiloiridescent virus. Jpn J Appl Ent Zool 11: 177–180Google Scholar
  71. Monnier C, Devauchelle G (1976) Enzyme activities associated with an invertebrate iridovirus: nucleotide phosphohydrolase activity associated with an iridescent virus type 6 (CIV). J Virol 19:180–186PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Monnier C, Devauchelle G (1980) Protein kinase activity associated with iridescent virus type 6 (Chiloiridescent virus). J Virol 35: 444–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Moore NF, Kelly DC (1980) A comparative study of the polypeptides of three iridescent viruses by N terminal analysis and surface labelling. J Invertebr Pathol 36: 415–422Google Scholar
  74. Morris ON (1970) Metabolic changes in diseased insects. J Invertebr Pathol 18: 191–206Google Scholar
  75. Ortin J, Vinuela E (1977) Requirement of cell nucleus for African swine fever virus replication in Vero cells. J Virol 21: 902–905PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Smith KM (1955) What is a virus? Nature 175: 12–21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Smith KM (1958 a) Early stages of infection withTipulairidescent virus. Nature 181:996–997Google Scholar
  78. Smith KM (1958 b) The morphology and crystallization of insect cytoplasmic viruses. Virology 5:168–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Smith KM (1958 c) A study of the early stages of infection with theTipulairidescent virus. Parasitology 48:459–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Smith KM (1967) Insect Virology. Academic New YorkGoogle Scholar
  81. Smith KM, Hills GJ (1959) Further studies on the electron microscopy ofTipulairidescent virus. JMol Biol 1: 277–280Google Scholar
  82. Smith KM, Williams RC (1958) Insect viruses and their structure. Endeavour 17: 12–21Google Scholar
  83. Smith KM, Hill GJ, Rivers CF (1961) Studies on the cross inoculation of theTipulairidescent virus. Virology 13: 233–241Google Scholar
  84. Steinhaus EA, Leutenegger R (1963) Icosahedral virus from a scarab (Sericesthis). J Invertebr Pathol 5: 246–248Google Scholar
  85. Stoltz DB (1971) The structure of icosahedral cytoplasmic deoxyriboviruses. J Ultrastruct Res 37: 219–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Stoltz DB (1973) The structure of icosahedral cytoplasmic deoxyriboviruses. An alternative model. J Ultrastruct Res 43: 58–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Stoltz DB, Summers MD (1971) Pathway of infection of mosquito iridescent virus. J Virol 8: 900–909PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Stoltz DB, Hilsenhoff WL, Stich HF (1968) A virus disease ofChironomus plumosus. J Invertebr Pathol 12: 118–126Google Scholar
  89. Thomas RS (1961 a) The chemical composition and particle weight ofTipulairidescent virus. Virology 14:240–261Google Scholar
  90. Thomas RS (1961b) Localization of DNA and protein inTipulairidescent virus by enzymatic digestion and electron microscopy. J Biophys Biochem Cytol 11: 15–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Tinsley TW, Kelly DC (1970) An interim nomenclature system for the iridescent group of viruses. J Invertebr Pathol 12: 66–68Google Scholar
  92. Tinsley TW, Harrap KA (1978) Viruses of invertebrates. Compr Virol 12: 1–101Google Scholar
  93. Tinsley TW, Robertson JS, Rivers CF, Service MW (1971) An iridescent virus ofAedes cantansin Great Britain. J Invertebr Pathol 18: 427–429Google Scholar
  94. Tripier F, Markovic LJ, Braunwald J, Kirn A (1975) Donnees nouvelles sur la structure et le bourgeonnement du FV3 (frog virus 3). Ann Microbiol (Paris) 126 B: 447–460Google Scholar
  95. Vago C (1963) A new type of insect virus. J Insect Pathol 5: 275Google Scholar
  96. Vago C, Rioux J A, Duthoit JC, Dedet JP (1969) Infection spontanee a virus irisant dans une population d’Aedes detritus(Hal 1833) des environs de Tunis. Ann Parasit Humaine Comp 44: 667–671Google Scholar
  97. Wagner GW, Paschke JD (1977) A comparison of the DNA of R and T strains of mosquito iridescent virus. Virology 81: 298–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Wagner GW, Paschke JD, Campbell WR, Webb SR (1974) Proteins of two strains of mosquito iridescent virus. Intervirology 3: 97–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Weiser J (1963) A new virus of mosquito larvae. Bull WHO 33: 586–588Google Scholar
  100. Weiser J (1968) Iridescent virus from the blackflySimulium ornatumMeigen in Czechoslovakia. J Invertebr Pathol 12: 36–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Williams RC, Smith KM (1957) A crystallizable insect virus. Nature 179: 119–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Williams RC, Smith KM (1958) The polyhedral form of theTipulairidescent virus. Biochim Biophys Acta 28: 464–469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Willison JHM, Cocking EC (1972) Frozen fractured viruses: a study of virus structure using freeze etching. J Microsc 95: 397–411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. Wrigley NG (1969) An electron microscopy study of the structure ofSericesthisiridescent virus. J Gen Virol 5: 12–134Google Scholar
  105. Wrigley NG (1970) An electron microscope study of the structure ofTipulairidescent virus. J Gen Virol 6: 169–173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Younghusband HB, Lee PE (1969) Virus cell studies ofTipulairidescent virus inGalleria mellonella. Virology 38: 247PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. Younghusband HB, Lee PE (1970) Cytochemistry and autoradiography ofTipulairidescent virus inGalleria mellonella. Virology 40: 757PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Yule BG, Lee PE (1973) A cytological and immunological study ofTipulairidescent virus-infectedGalleria mellonellalarvae haemocytes. Virology 51: 09–423Google Scholar
  109. Xeros N (1952) Cytoplasmic polyhedral virus diseases. Nature 170: 1073–1076PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Xeros N (1954) A second virus disease of the leatheijacket,Tipula paludosa. Nature 174: 562–565Google Scholar
  111. Xeros N (1964a) Phagocytosis of virus inTipula paludosaMeigen. J Insect Pathol 6: 225–230Google Scholar
  112. Xeros N (1964b) Development ofTipulairidescent virus. J Insect Pathol 6: 261–271Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. C. Kelly
    • 1
  1. 1.NERC Institute of VirologyOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations