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Akustisch evozierte Potentiale in der audiologischen und neurologischen Diagnostik

  • K. Maurer
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Zusammenfassung

Seit der Erstbeschreibung der corticalen akustisch evozierten Potentiale (AEP) beim Menschen durch Loomis et al. (1938) und P.Davis (1939) wurden eine Vielzahl von Wellen kurzer, mittlerer und später Latenz gefunden. Zur Zeit kennt man ca. 20 Komponenten, die sich nach akustischer Anregung durch elektronische Verfahren aus dem EEG gewinnen lassen. Die bekanntesten Wellen sind postsynaptischen Ursprungs und werden entsprechend ihrer Latenz in frühe, mittlere und späte AEP eingeteilt (Abb. 7.1). In der präsynaptischen Region mit den Haarzellen und ihren Hilfsstrukturen entstehen die Potentiale der Elektrocochleographie, also die Mikrophonpotentiale (CM = cochlear microphonics) und das Summationspotential (SP = summating potential). Neben dieser Einteilung in prä- und postsynaptische Aktivität gibt es noch Wellen mit Gleichspannungsanteil. Es sind dies die Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) und die Perstimulatorische Negative Gleichspannung (PNG). Bei der Frequenzfolgeantwort (FFA) schließlich wird die Frequenz eines Tones (< 1000 Hz) mit einer charakteristischen Zeitverschiebung im Hirnstamm nachvollzogen. Tabelle 7.1 zeigt ein Ordnungsschema mit den derzeit bekanntesten Wellen.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

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  • K. Maurer

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