Somatosensorisch evozierte Potentiale bei Kindern: Reifung und klinische Aspekte

  • J. B. Cracco
  • R. Q. Cracco


Somatosensorisch evozierte Potentiale (SEP) bieten eine nicht–invasive Methode zur Untersuchung des Nervensystems vom peripheren Nerv bis zur Großhirnrinde. Diese Technik kann Aufschluß geben über die afferente Funktion des peripheren Nervs, des Rückenmarks, des Hirnstammes und der Großhirnrinde. Untersuchungen dieser Potentiale bei Kleinkindern und Kindern haben Informationen geliefert bezüglich des Reifungsprozesses des menschlichen Nervensystems, und Anomalien dieser Potentiale sind bei Kindern mit fokalen und generalisierten neurologischen Defiziten beschrieben worden (Hrbek et al. 1968a, 1973; Desmedt u. Manil 1970; Desmedt et al. 1973, 1976; Cracco et al. 1979, 1980; Cracco u. Cracco 1982).


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allison T, Goff WR, Williamson PD, Van Gilder JC (1980) On the neural origin of early com–ponents of the human somatosensory evoked potential. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Clinical uses of cerebral, brainstem, and spinal somatosensory evoked potentials. Prog Clin Neurophysiol, vol 7. Karger, Basel, pp 51–68Google Scholar
  2. Anziska B, Cracco RQ, Cook AW, Feld EW (1978) Somatosensory far field potentials: Studies in normal subjects and patients with multiple sclerosis. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 45: 602–610Google Scholar
  3. Anziska B, Cracco RQ (1981a) Short latency somatosensory evoked potentials. Studies in patients with focal neurological disease. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 49: 227–239Google Scholar
  4. Anziska B, Cracco RQ (1981b) Short latency SEPs to median nerve Stimulation: Comparison of recording methods and origin of components. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 52: 531–539Google Scholar
  5. Blair AW (1971) Sensory examinations using electrically induced somatosensory potentials. Develop Med Child Neurol 13: 447–455PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bostem F (1968) Potentials evoques chez le singe papio papio: effets de l’anoxie. Electromyography 8: 263–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Calmes RL, Cracco RQ (1971) Comparison of somatosensory and somatomotor evoked responses to median nerve and digital nerve Stimulation. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 31: 547–562PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chatrian GE (1984) American electroencephalographic society. Guidelines for clinical evoked potential studies. J Clin Neurophysiol 1: 3–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chiappa KH, Choi SK, Young BR (1980) Short latency somatosensory evoked potentials following median nerve Stimulation in patients with neurological lesions. In: Desmedt JE (ed) Progress in clinical neurophysiology. Karger, Basel, pp 264–281Google Scholar
  10. Chiappa KH (1980) Pattern shift visual, brainstem auditory and short latency somatosensory evoked potentials in multiple sclerosis. Neurol 30: 110–123Google Scholar
  11. Cracco JB, Cracco RQ, Graziani LJ (1975) The spinal evoked response in infants and children. Neurol 25: 31–36Google Scholar
  12. Cracco JB, Cracco RQ (1977) Somatosensory evoked potentials to peroneal nerve Stimulation in man. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 43: 779Google Scholar
  13. Cracco JB, Cracco RQ, Stolove R (1979) Spinal evoked potential in man: A maturational study. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 46: 58–64Google Scholar
  14. Cracco JB, Bosch W, Cracco RQ (1980) Cerebral and spinal somatosensory evoked potentials in children with CNS degenerative disease. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 49: 437–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cracco JB, Cracco RQ (1982) Spinal somatosensory evoked potentials: Maturational and clinical studies. Ann NY Acad Sei 388: 526–537Google Scholar
  16. Cracco JB, Castells S, Mark E (1984) Spinal somatosensory evoked potentials in juvenile diabetics. Ann Neurol 15: 55–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cracco RQ (1972) Traveling waves of the human scalp recorded somatosensory evoked response. Effects of differences in recording technique and sleep on somatosensory and somatomotor responses. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 38: 557–566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cracco RQ (1973) Spinal evoked response: Peripheral nerve Stimulation in man. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 35: 379–386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cracco RQ, Cracco JB (1976) Somatosensory evoked potential in man: Far field potentials. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 41: 460–466Google Scholar
  20. Cracco RQ, Evans B (1978) Spinal evoked potential in the cat: Effects of asphyxia, strychnine, cord section and compression. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 44: 187–201Google Scholar
  21. Cracco RQ, Anziska BJ, Cracco JB, Vas GA, Rossini PM, Maccabee PJ (1982) Short latency somatosensory evoked potentials to median and peroneal nerve Stimulation: Studies in normal subjects and patients with neurologic disease. Ann NY Acad Sei 388: 412–425Google Scholar
  22. Delbeke JA, McComas J, Kopec SJ (1978) Analysis of evoked lumbosacral potentials in man. J Neurol Neurosurg Psych 41: 293–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Desmedt JE, Manil J (1970) Somatosensory evoked potentials of the normal human neonate in REM sleep, in slow wave sleep and in waking. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 29: 113–126Google Scholar
  24. Desmedt JE, Debecker J (1972) The somatosensory cerebral evoked potentials of the sleeping human newborn. In: Demente CD, Purpura DP, Mayer FE (ed) Sleep and the maturing nervous system, chapter 12. Academic Press, New York, pp 229–239Google Scholar
  25. Desmedt JE, Noel P, Debecker J, Nameche J (1973) Maturation of afferent conduction velocity as studied by sensory nerve potentials and by cerebral evoked potentials. In: Desmedt JE (ed) New developments in electromyography and clinical neurophysiology, vol 2. Karger, Basel, pp 52–63Google Scholar
  26. Desmedt JE, Brunko E, Debecker J (1976) Maturation of the somatosensory evoked potentials in normal infants and children, with special reference to the early Ni component. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 40: 43–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Desmedt JE, Cheron G (1980a) Central somatosensory conduction in man: Neural generators and interpeak latencies of the far field components recorded from neck and right or left scalp and earlobes. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 50: 382–403Google Scholar
  28. Dimitrijevic MR, Larsson LE, Lehmkuhl D, Sherwood AM (1978) Evoked spinal cord and nerve root potentials in humans using a noninvasive recording technique. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 45: 331–340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ellingson RJ (1970) Variability of visual evoked responses in the human newborn. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 27: 10–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Engler LL, Spielholz NI, Bernhard WN, Danziger F, Merkin H, Wolff T (1978) Somatosensory evoked potentials during Harrington instrumentation for scoliosis. J Bone Joint Surg 60: 528–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Feldman MH, Cracco RQ, Farmer P, Mount F (1980) Spinal evoked potentials in the monkey. Ann Neurol 7: 238–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Georgesco M, Rodiere M, Seror P, Cadilhac J (1982) Les potentials cerebraux somesthesiques evoques a partir du membre inferieur chez nouveau–ne et le nourrisson. Rev EEG Neurophysiol 12: 123–128Google Scholar
  33. Giblin D (1964) Somatosensory evoked potentials in healthy subjects and in patients with lesions of the nervous system. Ann NY Acad Sei 112: 93–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Goff WR, Rosner BS, Allison T (1962) Distribution of cerebral somatosensory evoked responses in normal man. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 14: 697–713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Goff WR, Shaywitz BA, Goff GD, Reisenauer MA, Jasiorkowski JG, Venes JL, Rothstein PT (1983) Somatic evoked potential evaluation of cerebral status in Reye snydrome. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 55: 388–398PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Goldie W, McMahon A (1983) The combined use of BAEPs and SSEPs in the assessment of brainstem dysfunction in children. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol [Abstr] 56: S48Google Scholar
  37. Grundy B, Lina A, Doyle F, Procopio P (1982) Somatosensory cortical evoked potential monitoring during neurosurgical Operations. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 53:32p Halliday AM (1975) The electrophysiological study of myoclonus in man. Brain 90: 241–284Google Scholar
  38. Hrbek A, Hrbkova M, Lenard HG (1968a) Somatosensory evoked responses in newborn infants. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 25: 443–448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hrbek A, Prechtl HFR, Hrbkova M, Lenard HG, Grant DK (1968b) Proprioceptive evoked potentials in newborn infants and adults. Develop Med Child Neurol 10: 164–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hrbek A, Karlberg P, Olsson T (1973) Development of visual and somatosensory evoked responses in pre-term newborn infants. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 34: 225–232PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hrbek A, Karlsson K, Kjellmer I, Olsson T, Riha M (1974) Cerebral reactions during intrauterine asphyxia in the sheep. II. Evoked electroencephalogram responses. Pediat Res 8: 58–63Google Scholar
  42. Hrbek A, Karlberg P, Kjellmer I, Olsson T, Riha M (1977) Clinical application of evoked electro-encephalographie responses in newborn infants. I: Perinatal asphyxia. Develop Med Child Neurol 19: 34–44Google Scholar
  43. Hrbek A, Karlberg P, Kjellmer I, Olsson T, Riha M (1978) Clinical application of evoked EEG responses in newborn infants. II: Idiopathic respiratory distress Syndrome. Develop Med Child Neurol 20: 619–626Google Scholar
  44. Hume AL, Cant BR, Shaw NA (1979) Central somatosensory conduction time in comatose patients. Ann Neurol 5: 379–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jones SJ (1977) Short latency potentials recorded from the neck and scalp following median nerve Stimulation in man. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 43: 853–863PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Jones SJ, Small DG (1978) Spinal and sub–cortical evoked potentials following Stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve in man. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 44: 299–306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Jones SJ (1982) Clinical applications of short latency somatosensory evoked potentials. Ann NY Acad Sei 388: 369–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kakigi R, Shibasaki H, Hashizume A, Kuroiwa Y (1982) Short latency somatosensory evoked spinal and scalp-recorded potentials following posterior tibial nerve Stimulation. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 53: 602–611PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kritchevsky M, Wiederholt WC (1978) Short latency somatosensory evoked potentials. Arch Neurol 35: 706–711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Läget P, Salbreux R, Raimbault J, D’Allest AM, Mariani J (1976) Relationship between changes in somesthetic evoked responses and electroencephalographic findings in the child with hemiplegia. Develop Med Child Neurol 18: 620–631PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lastimosa ACB, Bass NY, Stanback K, Norvell EE (1982) Lumbar spinal cord and early cortical potentials after tibial nerve Stimulation: effects of stature on normative data. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 54: 499–507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Liberson WT, Gratzur M, Zales A, Grabinski B (1966) Comparison of conduction velocity of motor and sensory fibers determined by different methods. Arch Phys Med 47: 17–23PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Lueders H, Andrish J, Gurd A, Weiner G, Klem G (1981) Origin of far field subcortical potentials evoked by Stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 52: 336–344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Markand O, DeMyer W, Worth R, Warren C (1982) Multimodality evoked responses in leuko- dystrophies. In: Courjoun et al (eds) Clinical applications of evoked potentials in neurology. Advances in neurology, vol 32. Raven Press, New York, pp 409–416Google Scholar
  55. Nash CL, Lorig RA, Schatzinger LA, Brown RH (1977) Spinal cord monitoring during operative treatment of the spine. Clin Orthop 126: 100–105PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Perot PL, Vera CL (1982) Scalp recorded somatosensory evoked potentials to Stimulation of nerves in the lower extremity in the evaluation of patients with spinal cord trauma. Ann NY Acad Sei 388: 359–368CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Phillips LH, Daube JR (1980) Lumbosacral spinal evoked potentials in humans. Neurol 30: 1175–1183Google Scholar
  58. Pratt H, Amlie RN, Starr A (1979) Short latency mechanically evoked somatosensory potentials in humans. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 47: 524–531PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Pratt H, Amlie RN, Starr A (1981) Short latency mechanicaly evoked peripheral nerve and somatosensory potentials in newborn infants. Pediat Res 15: 295–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Purpura DP (1976) Structure-dysfunction relations in the visual cortex of preterm infants. In: Brazier MAB, Coceani F (eds) Brain dysfunction in infantile febrile convulsions. Raven Press, New York, pp 223–240Google Scholar
  61. Rossini PM, Cracco RQ, Cracco JB, House WJ (1981) Short latency somatosensory evoked poten–tials to peroneal nerve Stimulation: Scalp topography and the effect of different frequency filters. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 52: 540–552Google Scholar
  62. Sarnowski RJ, Cracco RQ, Vogel HB, Mount F (1975) Spinal evoked response in the cat. J Neurosurg 43: 329–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Schiff J, Cracco RQ, Cracco JB (1983a) Evoked potential studies in the Guillain-Barre Syndrome. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 56: 10 PCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Schiff J, Cracco RQ, Rossini PM, Cracco JB (1983b) Spine and scalp somatosensory evoked potentials in normal subjects and patients with spinal cord disease: Evaluation of afferent transmission. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol (in press)Google Scholar
  65. Schramm J, Oettle GJ, Pichert T (1980) Clinical application of segmental somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP)—experience in patients with non-space occupying lesions. In: Barber C (ed) Evoked potentials: Proceedings of an International Evoked Potentials Symposium held in Nottingham, England. University Park Press, Baltimore, pp 455–464Google Scholar
  66. Schramm J, Krause R, Shigeno T, Brock M (1983) Experimental investigation on the spinal cord evoked injury potential. J Neurosurg 59: 485–492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Small DG, Matthews WB, Small M (1978) The cervical somatosensory evoked potential in the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Sei 35: 211–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Tsumoto T, Hirose N, Nonaka S (1972) Analysis of somatosensory evoked potentials to lateral popliteal nerve Stimulation in man. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 33: 379–388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Vas GA, Cracco JB, Cracco RQ (1981) Scalp recorded short latency cortical and subcortical somatosensory evoked potentials to peroneal nerve Stimulation. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 52: 1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Yamada T, Machida M, Kimura J (1982) Far field somatosensory evoked potentials after Stimulation of the tibial nerve. Neurol 32: 1151–1158Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. B. Cracco
  • R. Q. Cracco

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations