Paleokarstic Lead-(Zinc)-Fluorite Deposits in Shallowing Upward Sequences in the Triassic of the Alpujarrides (Betic Cordillera, Southern Spain)

  • J. M. Martín
  • J. Torres-Ruiz
  • N. Velilla
  • P. Fenoll Hach-Alí
Conference paper

Abstract

Paleokarstic deposits have been found in certain zones in the lead-(zinc)-fluorite Triassic deposits of the Alpujarride Complex. The karstic cavities appear to be developed in peritidal sequences shallowing upwards, which, in turn, are included in megasequences corresponding to transgressive-regressive sedimentary subcycles within a cycle tending to be regressive overall. The erosion and/or karstification surfaces, from which the cavities have developed, are found at the top of the sequences.

The karstic cavities are very variable in shape and size, but tend to be small (of the order of a centimeter to a meter in diameter). The barren sediment associated with the ores is composed in general of dolomitized detritic carbonates. Finely laminated red clays are also found locally.

The formation of these paleokarstic deposits is contemporaneous with that of the stratiform and/or non-karstic strata-bound deposits widely encountered in the Alpujarrides realm and considered to be of sedimentary/early diagenetic origin. The mineralogical composition and diagenetic evolution of both types are identical. The predominating ores in order of abundance are fluorite, galena and sphalerite, their usual sequence of crystallization being fluorite-sphalerite-galena. Very small amounts of sulfide and sulfosalts, including pyrite, jordanite, bournonite, tetrahecgrite-tennantite, and enargite-famatinite, seiigmannite and geocronite are to be found, usually as diminutive inclusions in galena.

Keywords

Zinc Cretaceous Dolostones Fluorite Pyrite 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amstutz GC, Fontbote L (1983) Observations on the genesis of strata-bound Pb—Zn—(F—Ba) deposits in carbonate rocks. In: Kisvarsanyi G, Grant SK, Pratt WP, Koenig JW (eds) Int coni Mississippi Valley type lead-zinc deposits, proc vol. Univ Missouri-Rolla, pp 536–545Google Scholar
  2. Arana R, Martin JM (1975) Estudio geoldgico de las mineralizaciones de fluorita de la Unidad de Las Viboras (Sierra Nevada, Cordilleras Beticas). Cuadernos Geologia Univ Granada 6: 75–88Google Scholar
  3. Assereto R, Jadoul F, Omenetto P (1977) Stratigrafia e metallogenesi del settore occidentale del distritto a Pb, Zn, fluorite e barite di Gorno (Alpi Bergamasche). Riv Ital Paleontol 83: 395–532Google Scholar
  4. Bathurst RGC (1971) Carbonate sediments and their diagenesis. Developments in sedimentology 12. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 660 pGoogle Scholar
  5. Brigo L, Kostelka L, Omenetto P, Schneider H-J, Schroll E, Schulz O, Strucl I (1977) Comparative reflections on four Alpine Pb—Zn deposits. In: Klemm DD, Schneider H-J (eds) Time-and strata-bound ore deposits. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 273–293Google Scholar
  6. Brigo L, Omenetto P (1976) Le mineralizzazioni plombo-zincifere della zona di Raibl: nuovi aspetti giacimentologici. L’Ind Min 27: 49–56Google Scholar
  7. Brigo L, Omenetto P (1978) The lead and zinc ores of the Raibl (Cave del Predil) zone in northern Italy; new metallogenetic data. In: Zapfe H (ed) Ergebnisse der oesterreichischen Projekte des int geol Korrelationsprogramms (IGCP) bis 1976. Oesterr Akad Wiss Erdwissenschaftl Komm Schriftenr, vol 3. Springer: Wien, pp 103–110Google Scholar
  8. Davies GR (1970) Algal laminated sediments, Gladstone Embayment, Shark Bay, Western Australia. In: Logan BW, Davies GR, Read JF, Cebulski DE (eds) Carbonate sedimentation and environments, Shark Bay, Western Australia. Am Assoc Pet Geol Mem 13. Tulsa Oklahoma, USA, pp 169–205Google Scholar
  9. Deffeyes KS, Lucia F, Wey PK (1965) Dolomitization of recent and Plio-Pleistocene sediments by marine evaporite waters on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. In: Pray LLC, Murray RC (eds) Dolomitization and limestone diagenesis, a symp. Soc Econ Paleontol Mineral (Spec Publ) 13: 71–88Google Scholar
  10. Delgado F, Estevez A, Martin JM, Martin-Algarra A (1981) Observaciones sobre la estratigrafla de la formación carbonatada de los Mantos Alpujärrides (Cordilleras Beticas). Estudios Geológicos 37: 45–57Google Scholar
  11. Foglierini F, Bernard A, Verraes G (1980) Le gisement des Malines (Gard). 26th int geol congress, Paris. Gisements Français E-4, 55 pGoogle Scholar
  12. Fontboté L (1981) Strata-bound Zn—Pb—F—Ba-deposits in carbonate rocks: new aspects of paleogeographic location, facies factors and diagenetic evolution. (With a comparison of occurrences from the Triassic of Southern Spain, the Triassic/Liassic of Central Peru and other localities). Diss, Universität Heidelberg, 192 pGoogle Scholar
  13. Fontboté L, Amstutz GC (1980) New observations on diagenetic crystallization rhythmites in the carbonate facies of the Triassic of the Alpujarrides (Betic Cordillera, Southern Spain). Rev Inst Inv Geol Diputacion Barcelona 34: 293–310Google Scholar
  14. Fuchs Y (1981) Metallogenic Alpidic districts in North Africa, a review. 4th int symp mineral deposits of the Alps, 4–10 October 1981, Berchtesgaden (abstracts), p 71Google Scholar
  15. Gebelein CD (1977) Dynamics of the recent carbonate sedimentation and ecology Cape Sable, Florida. Brill, Leiden, 120 pGoogle Scholar
  16. Herrero JM, Velasco F, Fortune JP (1982) Estudio preliminar sobre las mineralizaciones de hierro y de plomo-cinc-fluor en ambiente carbonatado del oeste de Vizcaya. Bol Soc Espanola Mineralogia 5: 183–190Google Scholar
  17. Iiling LV, Wells AJ, Taylor JCM (1965) Penecontemporary dolomite in the Persian Gulf. In: Pray LLC, Murray RC (eds) Dolomitization and limestone diagenesis, a symp. Soc Econ Paleontol Mineral (Spec Publ) 13: 89–111Google Scholar
  18. Jadoul F, Omenetto P (1980) Diagenetic evolution of ore-bearing internal sediments in karst cavities: examples from the Triassic of the Bergamasc Alps (Gorno District, northern Italy). Neues Jahrb Geol Paläontol Monatsh 80: 17–32Google Scholar
  19. Kinsman DJJ (1966) Gypsum and anhydrite of recent age. Trucial Coast, Persian Gulf. In: Rau JL (ed) 2nd symp on salt, Cleveland Ohio. Northern Ohio Geol Soc 1: 302–326Google Scholar
  20. Lagny P (1969) Mineralisation plombo-zincifère triasique dans un paléokarst (gisement de Salafossa, province de Belluno, Italie). Compt Rend Acad Sci Paris D268: 1178–1181Google Scholar
  21. Lagny P (1975) Le gisement plombo-zincifère de Salafossa (Alpes italiennes orientales): remplissage d’un paléokarst triasique par des sediments sulfures. Mineral Deposita 10: 345–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Martin JM (1978) Evolución diagenética de un sector de los materiales carbonatados de la Unidad Viboras (Mantos Alpujärrides, noroeste Sierra Nevada). Bol Geológico y Minero 89: 303–319Google Scholar
  23. Martin JM (1980) Las dolomias de las Cordilleras Béticas. Tesis Doctoral Univ Granada, 201 pGoogle Scholar
  24. Martin JM, Torres-Ruiz J (1982) Algunas consideraciones sobre la convergencia de medios de las mineralizaciones de hierro y plomo-zinc-fluorita de origen sedimentario, encajadas en rocas triasicas de los Complejos Nevado-Filäbride y Alpujarride del sector central de la Cordillera Bética. Bol Geológico y Minero 93: 314–329Google Scholar
  25. Omenetto P (1979) Significant ore fabric relationships in the lead, zinc, fluorite, and barite deposits of the Triassic province (Italian southern Alps). Ann Soc Geol Belgique 102: 512–529Google Scholar
  26. Ovejero G, Tona F, Marin JM, Gutierrez-Rave A, Jacquin JP, Sevajean G, Zubiaur JF (1975) Las mineralizaciones de plomo-fluorita de Sierra de Ldjar (provincia de Granada, Espana). V Jornadas Nacionales Minero-Metaltirgicas, Bilbao 9: 83–116Google Scholar
  27. Shinn EA, Ginsburg RN, Lloyd RM (1965) Recent supratidal dolomite from Andros Island.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. M. Martín
  • J. Torres-Ruiz
  • N. Velilla
  • P. Fenoll Hach-Alí
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento de Investigaciones Geológicas del C.S.I.C. Facultad de CienciasUniversidad de GranadaGranadaSpain

Personalised recommendations