Advertisement

Computer Applications in Pulmonary Function Testing

  • M. Heitz

Abstract

During the past few years computers have become important tools in pulmonary medicine. They have applications in lung function testing (lung volumes, gas exchange, mechanics) and in image processing (nuclear medicine, CT, nuclear magnetic resonance). This review concentrates on computer applications in conventional pulmonary function testing (PFT).

Keywords

Digital Computer Total Lung Capacity Respiratory Mechanic Body Plethysmography Pulmonary Medicine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aikins JS, Kunz JC, Shortliffe EH (1983) Puff: An expert system for interpretation of pulmonary function data. Comput Biomed Res 16: 199–208Google Scholar
  2. Arnold JE, Wilson BC (1981) Computer processing of perfusion, ventilation and V/Q images to highlight pulmonary embolism. Eur J Nucl Med 6: 209–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ayers WR, Ward SA, Weihrer AL, Abraham S, Caceres CA (1969a) Description of a computer program for analysis of the forced expiratory spirogram. I. Instrumentation and programming. Comput Biomed Res 2: 207–219Google Scholar
  4. Ayers WR, Ward SA, Weihrer AL, Abraham S, Caceres CA (1969b) Description of a computer program for analysis of the forced expiratory spirogramm. II. Validation. Comput Biomed Res 2: 220–228Google Scholar
  5. Barnhard HJ, Pierce JA, Joyce WW, Bates JH (1960) Roentgenographic determination of total lung capacity. Am J Med 28: 51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barret WA, Clayton PD, Lambson CR et al (1976) Computerized roentgenographic determinations of total lung capacity. Am Rev Respir Dis 113: 239–244PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Beaver L, Karlman, Wasserman, Whipp BJ (1973) On-line computer analysis and breath-by-breath graphical display of exercise function tests. J Appl Physiol 34 (1): 123–132Google Scholar
  8. Bencowitz HZ, Shigeoka JW (1980) Radiographic total lung capacity determination aided by a programmable calculator. Am Rev Respir Dis 122: 791–794PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Black KH, Petusevsky ML, Gaensler EA (1980) A general purpose microprocessor for spirometry. Chest 78: 605–612PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bouhuys A, Gulesian PJ (1970) Electronic data processing of flow and volume data from forced expiratory maneuvers. Am Rev Respir Dis 101: 1000 AGoogle Scholar
  11. O’Brien LE, Kass I. (1970) “On line” computer analysis of flow volume loops: a rapid mass screening system for early chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 101: 1000 AGoogle Scholar
  12. Brunner J, Langenstein H, Wolff G (1985) A simple method for estimating compliance critical care medicineGoogle Scholar
  13. Bunn AE, Vermaak JC, DeKock MA (1979) A comprehensive on-line computerized lung function. Respiration 37: 42–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chaing ST (1972) Application of desk-top computer in clinical spirometry: an automatic calculation and diagnosis program. Am Rev Respir Dis 106: 346–351Google Scholar
  15. Channing Rodgers RP, Tanner R (1983) Rapid and accurate determination of total lung capacity (TLC) from routine chest radiograms using a programmable hand-held calculator.. Comput Biol Med 13 (2): 125–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chowienczyk PJ, Rees PJ, Clark TJ (1981a) Automated system for the measurement of airways resistance, lung volumes and flow-volume loops.. Thorax 36: 944–949PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Chowienczyk PJ, Rees PJ, Payne J, Clark TJ (1981 b) A new method for computer assisted determination of airways resistance. J Appl Physiol 50 (3): 672–678PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Colebatch HJH, Nail BS, CKY Ng (1978) Computerized measurement of pulmonary conductance J Appl Physial 44 (4): 611–618Google Scholar
  19. Crapo RO, Morris AH, Gardner RD, Schaap RN (1982): Computation Techniques for rebreathing lung tissue volume and pulmonary capillary blood flow. J Appl Physiol. Respirat. Environ. Exercise Physiol. 52, 1375–1377Google Scholar
  20. Craven N, Sidwall G, West P, et al. (1976) Computer analysis of the single-breath nitrogen washout curve.. Am Rev Respir Dis 113: 445–449PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cumming G (1982) The pathophysiology of airways disease in computers. In: Prakash O (ed) Critical: care and pulmonary medicine, vol 2. Plenum, New York, pp 3–14Google Scholar
  22. Darryl SY, Hansen JE, Blais M, Wasserman K (1980) Measurement and analysis of gas exchange during exercise using a programmable calculator. J Appl Physiol 49 (3): 456–461Google Scholar
  23. Denison DM, Peacock AJ, Morgan DL et al. (1982) Shedding light on the subject.. Br J Dis Chest 76: 20–34PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dickman ML, Schmidt CD, Gardner RM, Marshall HW, Day WC, Warner HR (1969) On-line computerized spirometry in 738 normal adults.. Am Rev Respir Dis 100: 780–789PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dierkesmann R, Deffner D, Markof D, Meier-Sydow J (1980) On-line determination of isovolume- pressure-flow curves, measurement in antigen induced airway obstruction. Bull Physiopathol Respir 16: 173–174Google Scholar
  26. Drebes CB, Minh VD, Shephard JW (1979) Interval estimation of respiratory parameters using least-squares techniques, Comput Biomed Res 12: 149–166PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Earle RH, Domizi D (1969) On-line computer analysis of pulmonary function. Dis Chest 56: 247–248Google Scholar
  28. Ellis JH Jr, Perera SP, Levin DC (1975) A computer program for calculation and interpretation of pulmonary function studies. Chest 68: 209–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Evans JW, Peter D, Wagner PD (1977) Limits on V % distributions from analysis of experimental inert gas elimination. J Appl Physiol 42 (6): 889–898PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Farrell EJ, Siegel JH (1973 a) Investigation of cardiorespiratory abnormalities through computer simulation.. Comput Biomed Res 6: 161–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Farrell EJ, Siegel JH (1973 b) Simulation of respiratory regulation of blood gases in the critically ill patient. Trans ASME Ser G 95: 321–323Google Scholar
  32. Farrell EJ, Siegel JJ (1976) Estimation of blood gas contents from expired air under normal and pathologic conditions. Respir Physiol 26: 303–325PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Freiherr G (1979) Mycin: a medical and education aid. Res Resource Repr 111: 1–6Google Scholar
  34. Fry DA (1968) A preliminary lung model for simulating the bronchial tree. Comput Biomed Res 2: 111PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Geddes DM, Green M, Emerson PA (1978) Comparison of reports on lung function tests made by chest physicians with those made by a simple computer program.. Thorax 33: 257PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gomez DA (1963) Mathematical treatment of the distribution of tidal volume throughout the lung.. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 49: 312PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Grodins F, Buell J, Bart A (1967) Mathematical analysis and digital simulation of the respiratory control system. J Appl Physiol 22: 260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Grohs H, Heise D, Trendelenburg F (1983) Methode zur Simultananalyse von Atemtechnik und Gasaustausch. Prax Klin Pneumol 37: 1073–1075PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Guy HL, Gaines RA, Hill PM, Wagner PD, West JB (1976) Computerized, noninvasive tests of lung function. A flexible approach using mass spectrometry.. Am Rev Respir Dis 113: 737Google Scholar
  40. Hankinson JL (1981) Automated pulmonary function testing: interpretation and standardization. Ann Biomed Eng 9: 633–643PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hansen DJ, Toy VM, Deininger RA, Collopy TK (1983) Computer assisted spirometry. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 44 (6): 419–424PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Harf A, Atlan G, Lorino H et al. (1981) Correction for nonlinearity of body flow phlethysmograph. J Appl Physiol 50 (3): 658–662PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Heise D, Trendelenburg F (1979) Computer-aided measurements in body plethysmography. Prog Respir Res II: 179–187Google Scholar
  44. Heise D (1982) Analysis of body plethysmographic pressure-flow-loops by digital computer.. In: Prakash O (ed) Computers in critical care and pulmonary medicine, vol 2. Plenum, New York, pp 71–74Google Scholar
  45. Hilberman M, Sehill JP, Peters RM (1969) On-line digital analysis of respiratory mechanics and the automation of respirator control. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 5: 821–828 (1969)Google Scholar
  46. Hilberman M, Stacy RW, Peters RM (1972) A phase method of calculating respiratory mechanics using a digital computer. J Appl Physiol 32 (4): 535–541PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hoffer EP, Kanarek D, Kazemi H, Barnett GO (1973) Computer interpretation of ventilator studies.. Comput Biomed Res 6: 347–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Jackson AC, Milhorn HT Jr (1973) Digital computer simulation of respiratory mechanics. Comput Biomed Res 6: 27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jafar S, Saidel GM, Chester EH (1979) Real-time moment analysis of pulmonary nitrogen wash-out.. J Appl Physiol 46 (6): 1184–1190Google Scholar
  50. Johns DP, Pretto JJ, Streeton J A (1982) Measurement of gas viscosity with a Fleisch pneumotachograph J Appl Physiol 53 (1): 290–293Google Scholar
  51. Kaneko K (1978) Simultaneous helium and nitrogen singlebreath washout: lung model simulation. J Appl Physiol 44 (4): 499–506PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Kelman GR (1966) Digital computer subroutine for conversion of oxygen tension into saturation.. J Appl Physiol 21: 1375–1376PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Kelman GR (1967) Digital computer procedure for the conversion of PCo2 into blood C02 content.. Respir Physiol 3: 111–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kelman GR (1970) new lung model: an investigation with the aid of a digital computer. Comput Biomed Res 3: 241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Krumpe P, Weigt G, Martinez N, Marcan R, Cumariskey JM (1982) Computerized rapid analysis of pulmonary function test: use of a least mean squares correlation for interpretation of data. Comput Biol Med 12 (4): 295–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kung M, Tochmes L, Birch SJ, Fernandez RJ, Abraham WM, Sackner MA (1980) Hemodynamics at rest and during exercise in comfortable, hot and cold environments.. Measurements with a re- breathing technique.. Bull Eur Physio-Pathol Respir 16: 429–441Google Scholar
  57. Landser FJ, Nagels J, Demedts M, Billiet L, Van de Woestijne KP (1976) A new method to determine frequency characteristics of the respiratory system. J Appl Physiol 41 (1): 101–106Google Scholar
  58. Lewis FJ, Shimizu T, Scofield AL, Rosi PS (1966) Analysis of respiration by an on-line digital computer system: clinical data following thoracoabdominal surgery. Ann Surg 164: 547PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lisboa C, Ross DWR, Jardim J, Macklem PT (1979) Pulmonary pressure-flow curves measured by a data-averaging circuit. J Appl Physiol 47 (3): 621–627PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Lisboa C, Wood LD.H., Jardim J, Macklem PT (1980) Relation between flow, cuvelinearity, an density dependence of pulmonary pressure-flow curves. J Appl Physiol 48 (5): 878–885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Lorino H, Brault Y, Harf A, Atlan G, Lorino AM, Laurent D (1978) On-line calculations of pulmonary mechanics by digital computer. Methods Inf Med 17 (4): 261–711PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Mertens Ph (1983) A simple model of VA/Q distribution for analysis of inert gas elimination data. J Appl Physiol 55 (2): 562–568 (1983)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Millhorn HT Jr, Brown DR (1971) Steady-state summation of the human respiratroy system. Comput Biomed Res 3: 604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Millhorn HT, Benton R, Ross R, Guyton A (1965) A mathematical model of the human respiratory control system.. Biophys J 5: 27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Minken YP, Gardner RM, Adams TD, Yanowitz FG (1982) Computerized determination of pneumotachometer characteristics using a calibrated syringe.. J Appl Physiol 53 (1): 280–285Google Scholar
  66. Mitchell RR (1979) Incorporation the gas analyzer response time in gas exchange computations.. J Appl Physiol 47 (5): 1118–1122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Morgan DL, Gourlay AR, Denison DM (1984) An optical method of studying the shape and movement of the chest wall in recumbent patients. Thorax 39: 101–106PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Moser KM, Torzewski DF, Nubia LW (1969) Practical computer program for routine spirometric testing using the “time-sharing” concept.. Dis Chest 56: 92–97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Naimark A, Cherniack RM, Ptorri D (1971) Comprehensive respiratory information system for clinical investigation of respiratory disease. Am Rev Respir Dis 103: 229–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Nakumura T, Miyamoto Y, Sakakibara K, Tamura T, Takahashi M, Hiura T, Mikami T (1982) An on-line computer system for monitoring respiratory and cardiac functions of patients. Biotelem Patient Monit 9: 49–62Google Scholar
  71. Olszowka AJ, Wagner PD (1980) Numerical analysis of gas exchange. In: West JB (ed) Pulmonary gas exchange vol. 1. Academic, New York, pp 263–306Google Scholar
  72. Osborn JJ, Beaumont JO, Raison JCA, Russell J, Gerbode F (1968) Measurement and monitoring of acutely ill patients by digital computer. Surgery 64: 1057PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Osswald PM, Bernauer J, Bender MJ, Hartung HJ (1981) Graphic presentation of blood gas data in computers. In: Prakash O (ed) Critical care and pulmonary medicine vd 1. Plenum, New York, pp 343–353Google Scholar
  74. Pack Al, McCusher R, Moran F (1977) A computer system for processing data from routine pulmonary function tests. Thorax 32: 333PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Paiva M, Demeester M (1971) Gas transport in the air phase of the lung simulated by a digital computer. Comput Biomed Res 3: 675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pare PD, Books LA, Bates J, Lawson LM, et al. (1982) Exponential analysis of the lung pressure-volume curve as a predictor of pulmonary emphysema.. Am Rev Respir Dis 126: 54–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Peacock AJ, Morgan MDL, Gourlay S, Tucton C, Dension DM (1984) Optical mapping of the thoraco abdominal wall.. Thorax 39: 93–100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Pearce DH, Milhorn HT Jr, Holloman GH Jr, Reynolds WJ (1977) Computer-based system for analysis of respiratory responses to exercise. J Appl Physiol 42 (6): 968–975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Pengelly LD (1977) Curve-fitting analysis of pressure-volume characteristics of the lungs.. J Appl Physiol 42 (1): 111–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Peslin R, Jardin P (1983) Influence of second-order data filtering on common forced expiration indices. Clin Physiol 3: 123–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Peters M, Stacy RW (1964) Automated clinical measurement of respiratory parameters. Surgery 56 (1): 44–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Petrini MF, Dwyer TM, Phillips M (1982) A computerized timing algorithm for determination of pulmonary tissue volume.. J Appl Physiol 55 (1): 258–262Google Scholar
  83. Pierce RJ, Brown DJ, Holmes M et al. (1979) Estimation of lung volumes from chest radiographs using shape information. Thorax 34: 726–734PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Protti DJ, Craven N, Naimark A, Cherniack RM (1973) Computer assistance in the clinical investigation of pulmonary function studies. Methods Inf Med 12: 102–107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Rafalsky D, Sieverts H, Schwindke P (1982) Exact BTPS-compensation: a new concept realized with a microcomputerized system. In: Prakash O (ed) Computers in critical care and pulmonary medicine, vol 2. Plenum, New York, pp 131–137Google Scholar
  86. Rittel HF, Waterloh E, Rossmann K, Schon FA (1977) Klein- und GroBrechner-Einsatz bei Lungen-funktionsuntersuchungen. Prax Pneumol 31: 1–24PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Rosner SW, Palmer A, Caceres CA (1971) A computer program for computation and interpretation of pulmonary function data. Comput Biomed Res 4: 141–156PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sackner MA, Greeneltch D, Heiman MS, Epstein S, Atkins N (1975) Diffusing capacity, membrane diffusing capacity, capillary blood volume, pulmonary tissue volume and cardiac output measured by a rebreathing technique. Am Rev Respir Dis 111: 157–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Saluminen R, Amola S, Malkia E, Vuori I (1982) Computerized breath-by-breath analysis of respiratory variables during exercise.. Med Progr Technol 9: 27–32Google Scholar
  90. Shonfeld EM, Kerekes J, Rademacher CA, Wiehrer AL, Abraham S, Sivler H, Caceres C (1964) Methodology for computer measurement of pulmonary function curves. Dis Chest 45: 427–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Siegel JH, Farrell EJ (1973) A computer simulation model to study the clinical observability of ventilation and perfusion abnormalities in human shock. Surgery 73: 898–912PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Siegel JH, Farrell EJ, Miller M, Goldwyn RM, Friedman HP (1973) Cardiorespiratory interactions as determinants of survival and the need for respiratory support in human shock states. J Trauma 13: 602–619PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Smidt U (1979) EDV-unterstiitzte Auswertung von Lungenfunktionspriifungen.. Prax Pneumol 33: 139–149Google Scholar
  94. Smidt U, Finkenzeller, Remitting C (1975) On-line-Computereinsatz in der Ganzkorperplethysmo-graphie zur Berechnung der mittleren Resistance. Pneumologie 151: 223–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sodal IE, Swanson GD, Micco AJ, Sprague F, Ellis DG (1983) A computerized mass spectrometer and flowmeter system for respiratory gas measurements.. Ann Biomed Eng II: 83–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Soohoo SL, Brown HV (1983) Computerized body plethysmography: an algorithm for minimizing drift and hysteresis. Comput Biol Med 13 (1): 1–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Soto RJ, Forster HV, Rasmussen B (1975) Computerized method for analyzing maximum and partial expiratory flow-volume curves. J Appl Physiol 39: 315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Stewart WE, Mastenbrook MS Jr (1983 a) Graphical analysis of multiple inert gas elimination data.. J Appl Physiol 55 (1): 32–36PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Stewart WE, Mastenbrook MS Jr (1983b) Parametric estimation of ventilation-perfusion ratio distributions. J Appl Physiol 55 (1): 37–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Sulotto F, Romano C, Guazzotti T (1982) A computerized interpretation of standard pulmonary function tests.. Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 18: 983–999Google Scholar
  101. Sykes TW, Haynes RL, McFadden ER Jr (1977) On line determination of lung volumes by plethysmography and digital computer. Am Rev Respir Dis 115: 581–585PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Tanser AR (1982) The use of a micro-computer system in a lung function testing laboratory. Br J Dis Chest 76: 130–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tsai MJ, Pimmel RL, Donohue JF (1979) Automatic classification of spirometric data. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 26: 293–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Uhl RR, Lewis FJ (1974) Digital computer calculation of human pulmonary mechanics using a least squares fit technique. Comput Biomed Res 7: 489–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Vallbona C, Pevny E, McMath F (1971) Computer analysis of blood gases and acid-base status. Comput Biomed Res 4: 623–633PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Verbraak AFM, Bogaard JM, Jansen FRC et al: Automatic data processing in the clinical lungfunction laboratory. In computers in critical care and pulmonary medicine.. 2, 85–90. Edited by O Prakash. Plenum press (1982)Google Scholar
  107. Wagner PD (1981) Ventilation-perfusion relationships.. Clin Physiol 1: 437–451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wagner PD, West JB (1972) Effects of diffusion impairment on 02 and C02 time courses in pulmonary capillaries. J Appl Physiol 33 (1): 62–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Wagner PD, West JB (1980) Ventilation-perfusion relationships. In: West JB (ed) Pulmonary gas exchange vol I. Academic, New York, pp 219–259Google Scholar
  110. Wagner PD, Saltzman HA, West JB (1974) Measurement of continuous distributions of ventilation-perfusion ratios: theory. J Appl Physiol 36: 588–599PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Wald A, Jason D, Murphy TW, Mazzia VDB (1969) A computer system for respiratory parameters.. Comput Biomed Res 2: 411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Weigt G, Krumpe PE (1980) Computerized rapid analysis of pulmonary function tests: complete computer programs, documentations and instructions. National Technical Information Service, No. PB-82. 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield. VAGoogle Scholar
  113. Wessel HU, Stout RL, Bastanier Ch K, Paul MH (1979) Breath-by breath variation of FRC: effect on Vo2 and Vco2 measured at the mouth. J Appl Physiol 46 (6): 1122–1126PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. West JB (1969) Ventilation-perfusion inequality and overall gas exchange in computer models of the lung. Respir Physiol 7: 88–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wolff G (1985) Series deadspace.. Clin Physiol (in press)Google Scholar
  116. Yamamoto W, Hari T (1971) Phasic air movement model of respiratory regulation of carbon dioxide balance. Comput Biomed Res 3: 699CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Young RC, Pennix WG, Ewell MJ (1971) Pulmonary function compatibility of the time sharing computer system. J Am Med Assoc 63: 346–351Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Heitz

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations