Advertisement

Methods for the Study of Cyclic Nucleotides in the Nervous System of Insects

  • P. F. T. Vaughan
Part of the Springer Series in Experimental Entomology book series (SSEXP)

Abstract

Evidence has accumulated during the past 15 years, which suggests that the cyclic nucleotides (cyclic-3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate, cAMP and cyclic-3′,5′-guanosine monophosphate, cGMP) may function as second messengers in mediating the effects of some neurotransmitters (Beam and Greengard 1975; Greengard 1976; Kupfermann 1980). A good example of a situation in which cAMP acts as a second messenger in the CNS is provided by the mammalian cerebellar cortex (Kupfermann 1980), for which it has been established that the slow inhibitory effect of noradrenaline on Purkinje cells is mediated by cAMP (Bloom 1975).

Keywords

Adenylate Cyclase Cyclic Nucleotide Nerve Cord Cerebral Ganglion Phosphodiesterase Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Avruch J, Leone GR, Martin DB (1976) Effects of epinephrine and insulin on phosphopeptide metabolism in adipocytes. J Biol Chem 251:1511 –1515Google Scholar
  2. Beam KG, Greengard P (1975) Cyclic nucleotides, protein phosphorylation and synaptic function. In: The synapse. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol, vol 50. Cold Spring Harbor, New York, pp 157– 168Google Scholar
  3. Belinska M, Piechowska MJ (1975) Change in activity of phosphodiesterase of cyclic adenosine 3′,5′ monophosphate and cyclic guanosine 3′,5′ monophosphate during larval development of locust, Schistocerca gregaria ( Forsh ). Bull Acad Pol Sci CI II Ser Sci Biol 23: 1–6Google Scholar
  4. Benedeczky I, S-Rozsa K (1981a) Cytochemical localization of adenylate cyclase in the various tissues of Locusta migratoria migratorioides RF. Histochemistry 70:179– 188Google Scholar
  5. Benedeczky I, S-Rozsa K (1981b) Cytochemical demonstration of cyclic 3′,5′-AMP phosphodiesterase in different tissue of migratory locust (Locusta migratoria migratorioides RF). Histochemistry 70: 189–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bloom FE (1975) The role of cyclic nucleotides in central synaptic function. Rev Physiol Biochem Physiol 74:1 –103Google Scholar
  7. Bodnaryk RP (1978) Levels of brain cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP during the initiation of adult development in the bertha army worm, Mamestra conflgurata Wlk. Insect Biochem 8: 383–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bodnaryk RP (1979 a) Characterization of an octopamine-sensitive adneylate cyclase from insect brain (Mamestra conflgurata Wlk) Can J Biochem 57:226–232Google Scholar
  9. Bodnaryk RP (1979 b) Identification of specific dopamine- and octopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclases in the brain of Mamestra conflgurata (Wlk). Insect Biochem 9:155–162Google Scholar
  10. Bodnaryk RP (1981) Free and bound cyclic AMP in the brain of the moth, Mamestra conflgurata Wlk, during pupae-adult metamorphosis. Can J Zool 59:1629– 1634Google Scholar
  11. Brooker G, Harper JF, Terasaki WL, Moylan RD (1979) Radioimmunoassay of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. In: Brooker G, Greengard P, Robison GA (eds) Current methodology. Adv Cyclic Nucleotide Res, vol 10. Raven New York, pp 1–33Google Scholar
  12. Clement-Cormier YC, Parrish RG, Petzold GL, Kebabian JW, Greengard P (1975) Characterization of a dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase in the rat caudate nucleus. J Neurochem 25: 143–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Davis RL, Kiger JA Jr (1980) A partial characterization of the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases of Drosophila melanogaster. Arch Biochem Biophys 203:412–421Google Scholar
  14. Fallon AM, Wyatt GR (1975) An improved assay for cyclic GMP using an insect binding protein. Anal Biochem 63: 614–619PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Florendo NT, Barrnett RJ, Greengard P (1971) Cyclic–3′,5′-nucleotide phosphodiesterase: cytochemical localization in cerebral cortex. Science (Wash DC) 173: 745–747CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Forn J, Greengard P (1976) Regulation of lipolytic and antilypolytic compounds of the phosphorylation of specific proteins in isolated intact fat cells. Arch Biochem Biophys 176: 721–733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Garbers DL, Murad F (1979) Guanylate cyclase assay methods. In: Brooker G, Greengard P, Robison GA (eds) Current methodology. Adv Cyclic Nucleotide Res, vol 10. Raven, New York, pp 57–67Google Scholar
  18. Gelman DB, Hayes DK (1978) Cyclic 3′,5′-AMP phosphodiesterase activity in head extracts of the five larval instars of the European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis ( Hiibner), and in extracts of brain of the fifth instar. Comp Biochem Physiol 61c: 249–253Google Scholar
  19. Gill GN, Walton GM (1979) Assay of cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases. In: Brooker G, Greengard P, Robison GA (eds) Current methodology. Adv Cyclic Nucleotide Res, vol 10. Raven, New York, pp 93–106Google Scholar
  20. Greengard P (1976) Possible role for cyclic nucleotides and phosphorylated membrane proteins in post synaptic actions of neurotransmitters. Nature (Lond) 260:101–108Google Scholar
  21. Harmar AJ, Horn AS (1977) Octopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase in cockroach brain: effects of agonists, antagonists and guanyl nucleotides. Mol Pharmacol 13:512–520Google Scholar
  22. Howell SL, Whitfield M (1972) Cytochemical localization of adenylcyclase activity in rat Islets of Langerhans. J Histochem Cytochem 20:873–879Google Scholar
  23. Kebabian JW, Bloom FE, Steiner AL, Greengard P (1975) Neurotransmitters increase cyclic nucleotides in post ganglionic neurons: immunocytochemical demonstration. Science (Wash DC) 190: 157–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kelly LE (1981) The regulation of protein phosphorylation in synaptosomal fractions from Drosophila heads: the role of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and calcium/cal- modulin. Comp Biochem Physiol 69b:61 –67Google Scholar
  25. Kilpatrick AT, Vaughan PFT, Donnellan JF (1980) Monoamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase in Schistocerca gregaria nervous tissue. In: Insect neurobiology and pesticide action. Soc Chem Ind (Lond) Monogr:341 –345Google Scholar
  26. Kilpatrick AT, Vaughan PFT, Donnellan JF (1982) The effect of guanylnucleotides on the monoamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase of Schistocerca gregaria nervous tissue. Insect Biochem 12: 393–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Krueger BK, Fora J, Greengard P (1977) Depolarization-induced phosphorylation of specific proteins, mediated by calcium ion influx, in rat brain synaptosomes. J Biol Chem 252: 2764–2773PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kupfermann I (1980) Role of cyclic nucleotides in excitable cells. Ann Rev Physiol 42: 629–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Laemmli UK (1970) Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature (Lond) 227: 680–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lemos JR, Novak-Hofer I, Levitan IB (1982) Serotonin alters the phosphorylation of specific proteins inside a single living nerve cell. Nature (Lond) 298:64 –65Google Scholar
  31. Levitan IB, Barondes SH (1974) Octopamine- and serotonin-stimulated phosphorylation of specific protein in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia californica. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 71: 1145–1148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Levitan IB, Madsen CJ, Barondes SH (1974) Cyclic AMP and amine effects on phosphory-lation of specific proteins in abdominal ganglion of Aplysia californica; localisation and kinetic analysis. J Neurobiol 5:511–525Google Scholar
  33. Lincoln TM, Dills WL Jr, Corbin JD (1977) Purification and subunit composition of guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase from bovine lung. J Biol Chem 252: 4269–4275PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Morishima I (1983) Cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity during the development of the silk worm Bombyx mori. J Insect Physiol 19:2261–2265Google Scholar
  35. Nakai C, Brooker G (1975) Assay for adenylate cyclase and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and the preparation of high specific activity 32P-labelled substrate. Biochim Biophys Acta 391: 222–238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Nathanson JA (1977) Cyclic nucleotides and nervous system function. Physiol Rev 57: 157–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Nathanson JA, Greengard P (1973) Octopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase: evidence for a biological role of octopamine in nervous tissue. Science (Wash DC) 180:308–310Google Scholar
  38. Nathanson JA, Greengard P (1974) Serotonin-sensitive adenylate cyclase in neural tissue and its similarity to the serotonin receptor: a possible site of action of lysergic acid diethylamide. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 71:797–801Google Scholar
  39. Ram JL, Ehrlich YH (1978) Cyclic GMP-stimulated phosphorylation of membrane bound protein from nerve roots of Aplysia californica. J Neurochem 30: 487–491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rodbell M (1980) The role of hormone receptors and GTP-regulatory proteins in membrane transduction. Nature (Lond) 284: 17–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rosenick MM, Newburgh M, Berry SJ (1976) Brain cAMP levels and the initiation of adult development in the Cecropia silk moth. J Insect Physiol 22:1453– 1456Google Scholar
  42. Rudolph SA, Greengard P (1974) Regulation of protein phosphorylation and membrane permeability by β-adrenergic agents and cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate in the avian erythrocyte. J Biol Chem 249: 5684–5687PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Rubin CS, Erlichman J, Rosen OM (1972) Molecular forms and subunit composition of a cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase purified from bovine heart muscle. J Biol Chem 247:36–44Google Scholar
  44. Salomon Y (1979) Adenylate cyclase assay. In: Brooker G, Greengard P and Robison GA (eds) Current methodology. Adv Cyclic Nucleotide Res, vol 10. Raven, New York, pp 35–55Google Scholar
  45. Schonhofer PS, Skidmore IF, Bourne HR, Krishna G (1972) Cyclic 3′,5′-AMP phosphodiesterase in isolated fat cells. Simple and sensitive methods for the assay of phosphodiesterase activity in fat cells and studies of the enzyme inhibition by theophylline. Pharmacology (Basel) 7:65–77Google Scholar
  46. Shain W, Carpenter DO (1981) Mechanisms of synaptic modulation. In: Smythies JR, Bradley RJ (eds) Int Rev Neurobiol, vol 22. Academic, New York, pp 205–250Google Scholar
  47. Steiner AL, Parker CW, Kipnis DM (1972) Radioimmunoassay for cyclic nucleotides. I. Preparation of antibodies and iodinated cyclic nucleotides. J Biol Chem 247: 1106–1113Google Scholar
  48. Taylor DP, Newburgh RW (1979) The synthesis and content of neurotransmitters and their effect on cyclic nucleotide accumulation in the central nervous system of Manduca sexta. Insect Biochem 9:265–272Google Scholar
  49. Taylor DP, Roberts DE (1979) Lack of effect of neurotransmitters on cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase activity in insect CNS. Experientia (Basel) 35:856–857Google Scholar
  50. Thompson WJ, Appleman MM (1971) Multiple cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase activities in rat brain. Biochemistry 10:311 –316Google Scholar
  51. Thompson WJ, Terasaki WL, Epstein PM, Strada SJ (1979) Assay of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase and resolution of multiple molecular forms of the enzyme. In: Brooker G, Greengard P, Robison GA (eds) Current methodology. Adv Cyclic Nucleotide Res, vol 10. Raven, New York, pp 69–92Google Scholar
  52. Tovey KC, Oldham KG, Whelan JAM (1974) A simple direct assay for cyclic AMP in plasma and other biological samples using an improved competitive protein binding technique. Clin Chim Acta 56: 221–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ueda T, Greengard P (1977) Adenosine 3′,3′-monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein system of neuronal membranes. I. Solubilisation, purification and some properties of an endogenous phosphoprotein. J Biol Chem 252:5155–5163Google Scholar
  54. Usherwood PNR, Grundfest H (1965) Peripheral inhibition in skeletal muscle of insects. J Neurophysiol (Bethesda) 28: 497–518Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. F. T. Vaughan
    • 1
  1. 1.Glasgow UniversityGlasgowScotland

Personalised recommendations