Phthalocyanines (from the Greek naphtha and cyanide, rockoil and dark blue) are dyes that have been known for many years. The first phthalocyanine was produced accidentally in 1907 during a study of the properties of 1,2-cyanobenzamide. On heating an alcoholic solution of the benzamide a highly insoluble blue product precipitated . Twently years later, a copper phthalocyanine was obtained during an attempted preparation of 1,2-dicyanobenzene from dibromobenzene and CuCN . But it was Linstead and coworkers in the 1930’s who fitted these earlier observations into a systematic scheme showing that a vast range of phthalocyanines were all based on the one structure shown in Fig. III. 1 . A huge number of different metallophthalocyanines (abbreviated as PcM) has been produced and studied, with a concomitantly large literature of several thousand publications. Apart from their intrinsic use as dyes the PcM’s show a number of special properties which account for the great interest they have always aroused.
KeywordsSolar Cell Electron Spin Resonance Electron Spin Resonance Signal Power Conversion Efficiency Free Charge Carrier
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