Neurology pp 215-216 | Cite as

Neuroepidemiology as the Basis of Scientific Clinical Neurology

  • B. P. M. Schulte
Conference paper


On the eve of the VIth World Congress of Neurology held in Brussels in 1957, Wilder Penfield opened an Anglo-American Symposium in London on the history and philosophy of the brain and its functions with a Hippocratic preamble. In this lecture Penfield [1] quoted a personal communication from Dr. Gordon Holmes as follows: “The claim of Hippocrates that knowledge comes only from direct observation, observation controlled by experiment, remains today the essential basis of our science.”


  1. 1.
    Penfield W (1958) Hippocratic preamble: the brain and intelligence. In: Poynter FNL (ed) The history and philosophy of the brain and its functions. Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, p 3Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Riese W (1959) A history of neurology. MD Publications, New York, p 171Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schoenberg BS (1982) Hypothesis testing in neuroepidemiology: experiments of nature and experiments of man. Neuroepidemiology 1: 85–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tower DB (1978) Neurological epidemiology: an introductory perspective. Adv Neurol 19: 1PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. P. M. Schulte
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of NeurologyCatholic UniversityNijmegenThe Netherlands

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