Application of Automated and Rapid Microbiologic Assays in Various Health-Care Environments

  • M. S. Favero
Conference paper


In the past 15 years, there has been a virtual explosion of new techniques for the rapid detection and identification of microorganisms, as well as sophisticated procedures of automation (Goldschmidt 1980; Balows 1982). Currently, many of these procedures have progressed beyond the developmental and experimental, phases and are used routinely in clinical microbiology and immunology, in food and water microbiology, and in the pharmaceutical industries. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the application of some of these techniques to the field of environmental microbiology in a variety of health-care facilities such as hospitals and dialysis units.


Bacterial Endotoxin Dialysis Fluid Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Microbiologic Sampling Infection Control Program 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (1981) American national standard for hemodialysis systems. AAMI, Arlington, VirginiaGoogle Scholar
  2. Balows A (1982) A decade of automation: new horizons in microbiolgy. In: Tilton RC (ed) Rapid methods and automation in microbilogy, American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC, pp 76–79Google Scholar
  3. Bond WW, Favero MS, Petersen NJ, Ebert JW (1983) Inactivation of hepatitis B virus by intermediate-to-high-level disinfectant chemicals. J Clin Microbiol 28:535–538Google Scholar
  4. Bopp CA, Wachsmuth IK (1981) Luciferase assay to detect bacterial contamination of intravenous fluids. Am J Hosp Pharm 38:1747–1750PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Carson LA, Petersen NJ (1982) LAL-reactive material associated with hemodialysis membranes. In: Watson SW, Levin J, Novitsky TJ Endotoxins and their detection with the Limulus amebocyte lysate test. Liss, New York, pp 217–230Google Scholar
  6. Carson LA, Petersen NJ, Favero MS (1979) Use of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate assay system for detection of bacterial endotoxin in fluids associated with hemodialysis procedures. In: Cohen E Biomedical applications of the Horseshoe Crab (Limulidae). Liss, New York, pp 453–464Google Scholar
  7. Denyer SP, Ward KH (1983) A rapid method for the detection of bacterial contaminants in intravenous fluids using membrane filtration and epifluorescence microscopy. J Parenter Sci Technol 37:156–158PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Favero MS, Petersen NJ (1977) Microbiologic guidelines for hemodialysis systems. Dialysis Transplant 6:34–36Google Scholar
  9. Favero MS, Puleo JR (1980) Techniques used for sampling airborne microorganisms associated with industrial clean rooms and spacecraft assembly areas. Ann NY Acad Sci 353:241–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Favero MS, Bond WW, Petersen NJ, Berquist KR, Maynard JE (1974) Detection methods for study of the stability of hepatitis B antigen on surfaces. J Infect Dis 129:210–212PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Favero MS, Petersen NJ, Carson LA, Bond WW, Hindman SH (1975) Gram-negative water bacteria in hemodialysis systems. Health Lab Sci 12:321–334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Goldschmidt MC (1980) Instrumentation, automation, and miniaturization. In: Sonnenwith A, Jarett L (eds) Gradwohl’s clinical laboratory methods and diagnosis, 8th edn. Mosby, New York, pp 1495–1553Google Scholar
  13. Highsmith AK, Anderson RL, West CM, Dixon RE (1979) Characterization of an endotoxin-life substance recovered from an intravenous antibiotic solution involving pyrogenic reactions. In: Cohen E. Biomedical applications of the Horseshoe Crab (Limulidae). Liss, New York, pp 465–461Google Scholar
  14. Highsmith AK, Anderson RL, Allen JR (1982) Application of the Limulus amebocyte lysate assay in outbreaks of pyrogenic reactions associated with parentral fluids and medical devices. In: Endotoxins and Their Detection with the Limulus Amebocyte Lysate Test. Liss, New York, pp 287–299Google Scholar
  15. Hindman SH, Favero MS, Carson LA (1975) Pyrogenic reactions during haemodialysis caused by extramural endotoxin. Lancet 11:1Google Scholar
  16. Jorgensen JA, Alexander GA (1981) Automation of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate test by using the Abbott MS-2 Microbiolgy system. Appl Environ Microbiol 41:1316–1320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kantor RJ, Carson LA, Graham DR, Petersen NJ, Favero MS (1983) Outbreak of pyrogenic reactions at a dialysis center. Am J Med 74:449–456PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Levin ML, Bang FB (1968) Clottable protein in Limulus: its localization and kinetics of its coagulation by endotoxin. Thromb Diath Haemorrh 19:186–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Oxborrow GS, Fields ND, Puleo JR, Herring CM (1975) Quantitative relationship between airborne viable and total particles. Health Lab Sci 12:47–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Petersen NJ, Bond WW, Favero MS (1979) Air sampling for hepatitis B surface antigen in a dental operatory. J Am Dent Assoc 99:465–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Petersen NJ, Bond WW, Marshall JH, Favero MS, Raij L (1976) An air sampling technique for hepatitis B surface antigen. Health Lab Sci 13:233–237PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. S. Favero
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease ControlHospital Infections ProgramAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations