Detection of Group A Streptococcal Antigen by Coagglutination and Latex Agglutination

  • M. A. Gerber
Conference paper

Abstract

The original method for the serological grouping of streptococci was developed by Lancefield [21] and involved hot-acid extraction of group-specific antigen followed by precipitin testing with group-specific antisera in capillary tubes. Over the years, this method has been modified by the use of several different extraction procedures, including hot-formamide extraction [16], autoclaving [28], nitrous acid extraction [12], Streptomyces albus lytic enzyme extraction [24], and pronase B extraction [9]. In addition to the classical method of serogrouping by precipitation, fluorescent-antibody techniques have also been developed [26]. While accurate and reliable, all of these methods are relatively laborious, time consuming, and require well-trained laboratory personnel.

Keywords

Formaldehyde Agar Tuberculosis Polysaccharide Trypsin 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Arvilommi H (1976) Grouping of beta-haemolytic streptococci by using coagglutination, precipitation or bacitracin sensitivity. Acta Path Microbiol Scand 84:79–84Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Breese BB, Disney FA (1954) The accuracy of diagnosis of streptococcal infections on clinical grounds. J Pediatr 44:670–673PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Burdash NM, West ME, Newell RT, et al. (1981) Group identification of streptococci. Evaluation of three rapid agglutination methods. Am J Clin Pathol 76:819–822PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carlson JR, McCarthy LR (1979) Modified coagglutination procedure for the serological grouping of streptococci. J Clin Microbiol 9:329–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Castle D, Kessock-Philip S, Easmon CSF (1982) Evaluation of an improved Streptex kit for the grouping of beta-haemolytic streptococci by agglutination. J Clin Pathol 35:719–722PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chang MJ, Mohla C (1984) An evaluation of the Meritec—StrepTM Test Kit for the rapid detection of group A streptococcus antigen from throat swabs. (Abstract). Program and abstracts of the 84th annual meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, 4–9 March, p 255Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Christensen P, Kahlmeter G, Jonsson S, et al. (1973) New method for the serological grouping of streptococci with specific antibodies adsorbed to protein A-containing staphylococci. Infect Immun 7:881–885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Controni G, Cohen GJ, Mohla C, et al. (1983) An evaluation of a rapid latex agglutination test for the detection of group A streptococcal antigen in throat swabs. (Abstract). Program and Abstracts of the 23rd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 24–26 October, p 96Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ederer GM, Hermann MM, Bruce R, et al. (1972) Rapid extraction method with pronase B for grouping beta-hemolytic streptococci. Appl Microbiol 23:285–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Edwards EA, Larson GL (1974) New method of grouping beta-hemolytic streptococci directly on sheep blood agar plates by coagglutination of specifically sensitized protein A-containing staphylococci. Appl Microbiol 28:972–976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Edwards EA, Phillips IA, Suiter WC (1982) Diagnosis of group A streptococcal infections directly from throat secretions. J Clin Microbiol 15:481–483PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    El Kholy A, Wannamaker LW, Krause RM (1974) Simplified extraction procedure for serological grouping of beta-hemolytic streptococci. Appl Microbiol 28:836–839PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Engel HWB, Silfhout A van (1981) Simplified coagglutination test for serological grouping of beta-hemolytic streptococci. J Clin Microbiol 14:252–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Evins GM, Pigott NE, Facklam RR, et al. (1983) The development by the Centers for Disease Control of a specification for streptococcal serogrouping kits and its application to Streptex and to the Phadebact Streptococcus Test. J Biol Standard 11:333–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Facklam RR, Cooksey RC, Wortham EC (1979) Evaluation of commercial latex agglutination reagents for grouping streptococci. J Clin Microbiol 10:641–646PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fuller AT (1938) The formamide method for the extraction of polysaccharide from beta-hemolytic streptococci. Br J Exp Pathol 19:131–139Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gerber MA (1983) Micronitrous acid extraction-coagglutination test for rapid diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis. J Clin Microbiol 17:170–171PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hahn G, Nyberg I (1976) Identification of streptococcal groups A, B, C, and G by slide co-agglutination of antibody-sensitized protein A-containing staphylococci. J Clin Microbiol 4:99–101PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Keville MW, Doern GV (1982) Comparison of the API 20S Streptococcus identification system with an immunorheophoresis procedure and two commercial latex agglutination tests for identifying beta-hemolytic streptococci. J Clin Microbiol 16:92–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kirkegaard MK, Field CR (1977) Rapid slide coagglutination test for identifying and typing group B streptococci. J Clin Microbiol 6:266–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lancefield RC (1933) A serological differentiation of human and other groups of hemolytic streptococci. J Exp Med 57:571–595PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lue YA, Howit IP, Ellner PD (1978) Rapid grouping of beta-hemolytic streptococci by latex agglutination. J Clin Microbiol 8:326–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Maters AW, Charache P (1983) Latex agglutination for rapid detection of group A beta strep from direct culture swabs. (Abstract). Program and Abstracts of the 23rd Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 24–26 October, p 96Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Maxted WR (1948) Preparation of streptococcal extracts for Lancefield grouping. Lancet 2:255–256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Miceika B, Vitous A, Thompson KD (1984) A ten-minute latex agglutination test for the detection of group A streptococcal antigen from throat swabs. (Abstract). Program and abstracts of the 84th annual meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, 4–9 March, p 254Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Moody MD, Ellis EC, Updyke EL (1958) Staining bacterial smears with fluorescent antibody. IV. Grouping streptococci with fluorescent antibody. J Bacteriol 75:553–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Otero JR, Reyes S, Noriega AR (1983) Rapid diagnosis of group A streptococcal antigen extracted directly from swabs by an enzymatic procedure and used to detect pharyngitis. J Clin Microbiol 18:318–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rantz RA, Randall E (1955) Use of autoclaved extracts of hemolytic streptococci for serological grouping. Stanford Med Bull 13:290–291PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Slifkin M, Engwall C, Pouchet GR (1978) Direct-plate serological grouping of beta-hemolytic streptococci from primary isolation plates with the Phadebact Streptococcus Test. J Clin Microbiol 7:356–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Slifkin M, Interval G (1980) Serogrouping single colonies of beta-hemolytic streptococci from primary throat culture plates with nitrous acid extraction and Phadebact streptococcal reagents. J Clin Microbiol 12:541–545PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Slifkin M, Pouchet-Melvin GR (1980) Evaluation of three commercially available test products for serogrouping beta-hemolytic streptococci. J Clin Microbiol 11:249–255PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Slifkin M, Gil GM (1982) Serogrouping of beta-hemolytic streptococci from throat swabs with nitrous acid extraction and the Phadebact Streptococcus Test. J Clin Microbiol 15:187–189PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Slifkin M, Gil GM (1984) Evaluation of the culturette brand ten minute group A Strep I.D. technique. J Clin Microbiol 20:12–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Stoner RA (1978) Bacitracin and coagglutination for grouping of beta-hemolytic streptococci. J Clin Microbiol 7:463–466PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Waitkins SA, Ratcliffe JG, Anderson RD, et al. (1979) Grouping of streptococci by Streptex. J Clin Pathol 32:1234–1236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wannamaker LW (1972) Perplexity and precision in the diagnosis of streptococcal pharyngitis. Am J Dis Child 124:352–358PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Gerber
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Connecticut School of MedicineFarmingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations