Advertisement

Cytological and Biochemical Effects of Insecticides on Microorganisms

  • Rup Lal
  • S. Shivaji

Abstract

Insecticides are known to alter the growth and activities of microorganisms. These alterations are mediated through cytological and biochemical changes at cellular level. Although an enormous literature is available on the effects of insecticides on the growth and activities of microorganisms, little has been done to understand the effects of insecticides at cellular level. Some microorganisms, being unicellular and having many other attributes in experimental biology, are used as models to understand the mode of action of xenobiotic compounds. Thus information on the cytological and biochemical effects on such organisms may also present a picture of cytological and biochemical effects of insecticides in higher organisms.

Keywords

Biochemical Effect Methyl Parathion Citric Acid Production Skeletonema Costatum Euglena Gracilis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson JPE, Domsch KH (1980) Influence of selected pesticides on the microbial degradation of 14C-triallate and 14C-diallate in soil. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 9: 115–123PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Batterton JC, Boush GM, Matsumura F (1971) Growth response of blue green algae to aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and their metabolites. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 6: 589–594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Biggs DC, Rowland RG, O’Connors HB, Powers CD, Wurster CF (1978) A comparison of the effects of chlordane and PCH on the growth, photosynthesis and cell size of estuarine phytoplankton. Environ Pollut 15: 253–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bollag JM (1974) Microbial transformation of pesticides. Adv Appl Microbiol 18: 75–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bollag WB (1961) Interaction between pesticides and soil microorganisms. Annu Rev Microbiol 15: 59–92Google Scholar
  6. Borghi HS, Dao P, Bonotto S, Neubrun H (1973) The effect of lindane on Acetabularia mediterranea. Protoplasma 78: 99–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bowes GW (1972) Uptake and metabolism of 2,2-bis-(p-chlorophenyl) 1,1,1-trichloroethane by marine phytoplankton and its effect on growth and chloroplast electron transport. Plant Physiol 49: 172–176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bowes GW, Gee RW (1971) Inhibition of photosynthetic electron transport in the chloroplast. Bioenergetics 2: 47–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bridges BA, Moltershead RP, Green MHL, Gray WJH (1973) Mutagenacity for Escherichia coli WP2 and some derivatives deficient in DNA repair. Mutat Res 19: 295–303PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bushway RJ (1978) Growth, macromolecular synthesis and organophosphate metabolism in Dictyostelium discoideum exposed to insecticides and ultravoilet light. Diss Abstr Int B 38: 5329Google Scholar
  11. Bushway RJ, Hanks AR (1976) Pesticide inhibition of growth and macromolecular synthesis in cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Pestic Biochem Physiol 6: 254–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Butler GL (1977) Algae and pesticides. Residue Rev 66: 19–62Google Scholar
  13. Carere A, Ortali VA, Cardamane G, Morpurgo G (1978) Mutagenacity of dichlorvos and other structurally related pesticides in Salmonella and Streptomyces. Chem Biol Interact 22: 297–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chacko GL, Lockwood JL, Zalsir MJ (1966) Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides. Degradation by microbes. Science 154: 893–895CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Clark MA (1977) Possible role of acetylcholine in aggregation centre spacing in Polyspondylium violaceum. Nature (London) 266: 170–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Clegg TJ, Koevenig JL (1974) The effect of four chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides and one organophosphorus pesticide on ATP levels in three species of photosynthetic freshwater algae. Bot Gaz (Chicago) 135: 368–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cole DR, Plapp FW (1974) Inhibition of growth and photosynthesis by polychlorinated biphenyls and several insecticides. Bull Environ Entomol 3: 217–220Google Scholar
  18. Cox JL (1972) DDT residues in marine phytoplanktons. Residue Rev 44: 23–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Czeczuga B, Gierasimow M (1977) Wplyw DDT na zawartosc aminokwason W hodowlack zielenicjednokomorkowych. Bromatol Chem Toksykol 10: 331–337Google Scholar
  20. Derby SB, Ruber E (1970) Primary production. Depression of oxygen evolution in algal cultures by organophosphorus insecticides. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 5: 553–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fisher NS (1975) Chlorinated hydrocarbon pollutants and photosynthesis of marine phytoplankton. A reassessment. Science 189: 463–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. French JE, Roberts JF (1976) Effect of DDT and polychlorinated biphenyls on cellular metabolism and ultrastructure of Crithidia fasciculata, a flagellated protozoan. Natl Tech Inf Serv AD-AO 33507, 26Google Scholar
  23. Gadallah AI, Nasar M (1975) DNA-RNA hybrids from ovaries of normal and sterilized Musca domestica. Insect Biochem 5: 231–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Glooschenko V, Lott JNA (1977) The effect of chlordane on Scenedesmus quadricauda and Chlamydomonas sp. Can J Bot 55: 2866–2872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Green NHL, Medcaff ASC, Arlett CF, Harcourt SA, Lehmann AR (1974) DNA strand breakage caused by dichlorvos, MMS and iodoacetamide in Escherichia coli and cultured chines hamster cells. Mutat Res 24: 365–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Griffin DE, Walter EH (1978) In vitro breakage of plasmid DNA by mutagens and pesticides. Mutat Res 52: 161–169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hicks GF (1976) Distribution and effects of DDT and 2,4,5-T in Bacillus subtilis. Diss Abstr Int B 36: 4313Google Scholar
  28. Hicks GF, Corner TR (1973) Location and consequences of 1,1,1 trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane uptake by Bacillus megaterium. Appl Microbiol 25: 381–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Jeanne-Levain N (1974) Etudes des effets du lindane sur la croissance et le développement de quelques organismes unicellulaires. Bull Soc Zool Fr 99: 105–109Google Scholar
  30. Jeanne-Levain N (1979) Effets du lindane sur la division, le cycle cellulaire et les biosynthesis de deux algues unicellulaires. Can J Bot 57: 1464–1472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Karenlampi SO, Martin E, Hanninen OPP (1982) Growth and cytochrome P-450 of yeast subjected to various foreign chemicals. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 11: 693–698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kaufman DD (1977) Biodegradation and persistence of several acetamide, acylanilide, azide, carbamate and organophosphate pesticide combination. Soil Biol Biochem 9: 49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kaufman DD, Kearney PC, Endt DW von, Miller DE (1970) Methylcarbamate inhibition of phenylcarbamate metabolism in Soil. J Agric Food Chem 18: 513–519PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kopecek K, Fuelxer F, Ratzmon W, Simonis W (1976) Lichtabhängige Insektizidwirkungen auf einzellige Algen. Ber Dtsch Bot Gez 88: 269–281Google Scholar
  35. Lal R (1982) Accumulation, metabolism and effects of organophosphorus insecticides on microorganisms. Adv Appl Microbiol 28: 149–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lal R (1983) Factors influencing microbe/insecticide interactions. Crit Rev Microbiol 10: 261–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lal R, Dhanaraj PS (1984) Effects of pesticides on microbial nitrogen fixation. Adv Agron 37: in pressGoogle Scholar
  38. Lal R, Saxena DM (1979) Effect of DDT on growth of Tetrahymena pyriformis. Arch Protistenkd 122: 382–386Google Scholar
  39. Lal R, Saxena DM (1980a) Cytological and biochemical effects of pesticides on microorganisms. Residue Rev 73: 49–86Google Scholar
  40. Lal R, Saxena DM (1980b) Effect of DDT on cell population growth, cell division and DNA synthesis in Stylonychia notophora ( Stokes ). Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 9: 163–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lal R, Saxena DM (1981) Effect of DDT on RNA and protein synthesis in Stylonychia notophora ( Stokes ). Arch Protistenkd 124: 103–109Google Scholar
  42. Lal R, Saxena DM (1982) Accumulation, metabolism and effects of organochlorine insecticides on microorganisms. Microbiol Rev 46: 95–127PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Lal R, Reddy BVP, Saxena DM (1981) Effect of DDT on cell division and DNA, RNA and protein synthesis in a ciliate protozoan Blepharisma intermedium. Acta Protozool 20: 421–427Google Scholar
  44. Lawley PD, Shah S, Orr DJ (1974) Methylation to nucleic acids by 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate ( Dichlorvos, DDVP). Chem Biol Interact 8: 171–182PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lee SS, Fang SC, Freed VH (1976) Effect of DDT on photosynthesis of Selanastrum capricarmutum. Pestic Biochem Physiol 6: 46–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lofroth G (1970) Alkylation of DNA by dichlorvos. Naturwissenschaften 57: 393–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lofroth G, Kim C, Hussain S (1969) Alkylating property of 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate. A disregraded hazard. Environ Mutagen Soc News Lett 2: 21–27Google Scholar
  48. Luard EJ (1973) Sensitivity of Dunaliella and Scenedesmus (Chlorophyceae) to chlorinated hydrocarbon. Phycologia 12: 29–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. MacCann J, Choi E, Yamascki E, Ames BN (1975) Detection of carcinogens as mutagens in the Salmonella/microsome test assay of 300 chemicals. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 73: 5135–5139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. MacFarlane RB, Glooschanko WA, Harriss RC (1971) The interaction of light intensity and DDT concentration upon the marine diatom Nitzschia delicatissima Cleve. Hydrobiologia 39: 373–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Madhukar BVR, Pillai MKK, Agarwal HC, Shah VC (1970) Incorporation of thymidine into DNA of gonads in the normal and chemosterilized yellow fever mosquito. Entomol Exp Appl 13: 275–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Magnani B, Powers CD, Wurster CF, O’Connors HB (1978) Effect of chlordane and heptachlor on the marine dinoflagellate, Exuviella baltica Lohmann. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 20: 1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Maleszewska T (1974) Degradation of methyl parathion by microorganisms occurring in surface water and sewage. Pol Arch Hydrobiol 21: 163–171Google Scholar
  54. Menzel DW, Anderson J, Randtke A (1970) Marine phytoplankton vary in their response to chlorinated hydrocarbons. Science 167: 1724–1728PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Morel NML (1976) Action of DDT on two clones of a marine alga Pyromimonas. Diss Abstr Int B 36: 1525–1526Google Scholar
  56. Morgan JR (1972) Effects of Aroclor 1242 (a poly chlorinated biphenyl) and DDT on cultures of an alga, protozoan, daphnid, ostracod and guppy. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 8: 129–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mosser JL, Fisher NS, Teng T, Wurster CF ( 1972 a) polychlorinated biphenyls. Toxicity to certain phytoplanktons. Science 175: 191–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mosser JL, Fisher NS, Wurster CF (1972b) Polychlorinated biphenyls and DDT alter species composition in mixed cultures of algae. Science 176: 533–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nakas JP (1977) Chlordane inhibition of endopeptidase activity in the marine bacterium Aeromonas proteolytica. Diss Abstr Int B 38: 77Google Scholar
  60. Nakas JP, Litchfield CD (1979) Evidence for subcellular localization and specificity of chlordane inhibition in the marine bacterium Aeromonas proteolytica. Appl Environ Microbiol 37: 471–479PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Nelson BD, Williams C (1971) Action of cyclodiene pesticides in oxidative metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Agric Food Chem 19: 339–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pawlaczyk-Szpilowa M, Lejczak B (1978) Studies on the influence of chlorphenvinphos, carbaryl, and propoxur on the enzymatic activities of bacterial species isolated from water. Acta Hydrochim Hydrobiol 6: 341–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Pfister RM (1972) Interaction of haloginated pesticides and microorganisms. A review. Crit Rev Microbiol 2: 1–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Powers CD, Wurster CF, Rowland RG (1979) DDE inhibition of marine algal cell division and photosynthesis per cell. Pestic Biochem Physiol 10: 306–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Puiseux-Dao S, Jeane-Levain N, Roux F, Ribier J, Borgi C, Brun H (1977) Analyse des effets du lindane insecticide organochlorine au niveau cellulaire. Protoplasma 91: 325–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Rahmatullah M, Jahan R, Chowdhury AA, Faruk AMP, Chowdhury MSK (1978) Effect of organophosphorus insecticides on fermentation process in Aspergillus niger. J Ferment Technol 56: 169–172Google Scholar
  67. Rahmatullah M, Ali MS, Yusuf HKM, Jahan R, Asuduzzaman J, Chowdhury AA (1979) ATPase reversal of malathion inhibition of citric acid fermentation with Aspergillus niger. J Ferment Technol 57: 379–381Google Scholar
  68. Rosas SB, Secco MDC, Ghittoni NE (1980) Effects of pesticides on fatty acid and phospholipid composition of Escherichia coli. Appl Environ Microbiol 40: 231–234PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Saroja G, Bose S (1982) Effect of methyl parathion on the growth, cell size, pigment and protein contents of Chlorella protothecoides. Environ Pollut 27: 297–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Saxena DM, Lal R (1981) Effect of DDT on RNA and protein synthesis in Stylonychia notophora ( Stokes ). Arch Protistenkd 124: 103–109Google Scholar
  71. Saxena DM, Shivaji S, Lal R (1981) Effect of DDT on DNA, RNA and protein synthesis in Tetrahymena pyriformis. Indian J Exp Biol 19: 568–570PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Saxena S, Pillai MKK, Shivaji S (1982) Mode of action of alkylating agents using a ciliate protozoan as a model system. 6. Inhibition of synthesis of macromolecules by metapa in Tetrahymena pyriformis. Arch Protistenkd 126: 339–353Google Scholar
  73. Sheridan RP, Simms MR (1975) Effect of the insecticide Zectran (mexacarbate) on several algae. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 13: 565–569PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Shiau SY, Huff RA, Wells BC, Felkner K (1980) Mutagenacity and DNA damaging activity for several pesticide tested with Bacillus subtilis mutants. Mutat Res 71: 169–179PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Shivaji S, Saxena DM, Pillai MKK (1975) Mode of action of alkylating agents using a ciliate protozoan as a model system. I. Effect of metapa on cell division and DNA synthesis in Stylonychia notophora. Arch Protistenkd 117: 303–313Google Scholar
  76. Shivaji S, Saxena DM, Pillai MKK (1978a) Mode of action of alkylating agents using a ciliate protozoan as a model system 2. Effect of metapa on RNA and protein synthesis during the cell cycle of Stylonychia notophora. Arch Protistenkd 120: 354–366Google Scholar
  77. Shivaji S, Saxena DM, Pillai MKK (1978b) Mode of action of alkylating agents using a ciliate protozoan as a model system. 3. Effect of metapa on cell division and DNA synthesis during cell cycle in Blepharisma intermedium. Indian J Exp Biol 16: 450–454Google Scholar
  78. Shivaji S, Saxena DM, Pillai MKK (1978 c) Mode of action of alkylating agents using a ciliate protozoan as a model system. 4. Effect of metapa on RNA synthesis during the cell cycle of Blepharisma intermedium. Indian J Exp Biol 16: 455–459Google Scholar
  79. Shivaji S, Saxena DM, Pillai MKK ( 1978 d) Mode of action of alkylating agents using a ciliate protozoan as a model system. 5. Effect of metapa on protein synthesis during cell cycle of Blepharisma intermedium. Indian J Exp Biol 16: 632–634Google Scholar
  80. Shivaji S, Saxena DM, Pillai MKK (1979) Effect of metapa on growth rate of Tetrahymena pyriformis. Acta Protozool 18: 629–633Google Scholar
  81. Simonis W, Lee-Kaden J (1979) Selective effects of lindane (γ-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexachlorocyclohexane) on photosynthesis, membrane transport of aminoacids and protein synthesis in Anacystis nidulans. Z Naturforsch Biosci 34C: 1062–1065Google Scholar
  82. Srivastava V, Misra RC (1981) Effect of endosulfan on plasma membrane function of yeast Rhodotorula gracilis. Toxicol Lett 7: 475–480PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Torres AMR, O’Flaherty LM (1976) Effect of pesticides on Chlorella, Chlorococcum, Sligeoclonium (Chlorophyceae); Vaucheria (Xanthophyceae) and Oscillatoria ( Cyanophyceae ). Phycologia 15: 25–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Trudgill PW, Widdus R (1970) Effects of chlorinated insecticides on metabolic processes in bacteria. Biochem J 118: 48–49Google Scholar
  85. Ukeles R (1962) Growth of pure cultures of marine phytoplankton in the presence of toxicants. Appl Microbiol 10: 532–537PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Wainwright M (1978) A review of the effects of pesticides on microbial activity in soil. J Soil Sci 29: 287–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ware GW, Roan CC (1970) Interaction of pesticides with aquatic microorganisms and planktons. Residue Rev 33: 15–45PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Wennerberg R, Lofroth G (1974) Formation of 7-methyl guanine by dichlorvos in bacteria and mice. Chem Biol Interact 8: 339–348PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Widdus R, Trudgill PW, Maliszewski MJ (1971) The effect of technical chlordane on energy metabolism of Bacillus megaterium. J Gen Microbiol 69: 15–22PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Wurster CF (1968) DDT reduces photosynthesis of marine phytoplankton. Science 159: 1474–1475PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rup Lal
  • S. Shivaji

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations