Advertisement

Bogen-/Funken-Emissionsspektroskopie

  • Othmar G. Koch
  • W. Fresenius

Zusammenfassung

Die optische Emissionsspektralanalyse (OES) mit Bogen- und Funkenanregung gehört zu den „alten“ Analysenmethoden. Vom Anfang der 30er Jahre ausgehend führte die Entwicklung der OES zu ihrer breiten Anwendung in praktisch allen Materialbereichen der analytischen Chemie, wobei bis heute noch die Registrierung der Linienspektren sowohl photographisch mit Hilfe von Spektrographen (OESG) als auch elektrometrisch mit Hilfe von Spektrometern (OESM) erfolgt. Unter den physikalischen bzw. instrumentellen Analysenmethoden wurde und wird derzeit die OES mit Bogen- und Funkenanregung am häufigsten angewandt. Die in der „Einleitung“ (s. S. 1) erwähnten Veränderungen des Anwendungsbereiches der verschiedenen Analysenmethoden hatten und haben aber auch auf die OES ihre Auswirkungen. Vor allem die Analyse von Lösungen wurde zum erheblichen Teil von der AAS, im Falle der Bestimmung von Einzelelementen oder einer niedrigen Zahl von Elementen, und der Plasmaspektrometrie, im Falle von Multielementanalysen, übernommen. Aber auch die Analyse fester Probematerialien wird aus verschiedenen Gründen in zunehmendem Maße auf die AAS und die Plasmaspektrometrie verlagert. Hier dürfte künftig u. a. auch ein Teil des Einsatzbereiches der OES mit Bogenanre-gung allmählich auf die Plasmaspektrometrie übergehen [1], Diese Entwicklung ist noch nicht abgeschlossen und weitere Veränderungen des Anwendungsbereiches und -umfanges dürften in den kommenden Jahren wohl zu erwarten sein.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Boumans PWJM, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 299 (1979) 337Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Feldkirchner H, Krempl H, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 27 (1956) 621Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Diebel H, Hanke W, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 28 (1957) 127Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hartleif G, Stahl u Eisen 77 (1957) 1497Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Krempl H, Scheibe G, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 28 (1957) 135Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thorn F, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 28 (1957) 133Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Diebel H, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 29 (1958) 275Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Graue G, Eckhard S, Marotz R, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 29 (1958) 629Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nordmeyer M, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 30 (1959) 11Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Diehl W, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 32 (1961) 11Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Laffolie H de, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 32 (1961) 145Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Piper E, Kern H, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 32 (1961) 375Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Eckhard S, Graue G, Marotz R, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 33 (1962) 145Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Eckhard S, Kern H, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 33 (1962) 151Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Graue G, Marotz R, Eckhard S, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 192 (1963) 137Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Laffolie H de, DEW-Techn Ber 5 (1965) 36Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lounamaa N, Jerkontorets Ann 149 (1965) 12Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dickens P, König P, Jaensch P, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 37 (1966) 127Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ohls K, Koch KH, Becker G, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 240 (1968) 289Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ohls K, Koch KH, Becker G, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 249 (1970) 100Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Koch KH, Ohls K, Spectrochim Acta 23B (1968) 427Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Slickers K, Spectrochim Acta 27B (1972) 265Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Slickers K, Spectrochim Acta 28B (1973) 441Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Höller P, Thoma C, Brost U, Mattner H, Melier G, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 42 (1971) 559Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Schwarz W, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 42 (1971) 627Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Slickers K, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 43 (1972) 49Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Slickers K, Vorpe JP, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 43 (1972) 819Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Slickers K, Geiseler J, Marsen E, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 47 (1976) 363Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Radmacher HW, Swardt MC de, Spectrochim Acta 30B (1975) 353Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Brand A, Berstermann W, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 30 (1959) 541Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bruch J, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 30 (1959) 715Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dickens P, Bähr A, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 30 (1959) 489Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Graue G, Marotz R, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 30 (1959) 595Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hartleif G, Kornfeld H, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 30 (1959) 485Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hildebrand H, Diehl W, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 30 (1959) 659Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Höller P, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 30 (1959) 589Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Manecke H, Brokopf W, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 30 (1959) 545Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mathien W, Lacomble M, Charlet L, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 30 (1959) 493Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pack A, Zischka B, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 30 (1959) 407Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Willmer TK, Liedtke W, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 30 (1959) 713Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wollweber G, Fehle R, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 30 (1959) 635Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Willmer TK, Liedtke W, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 35 (1964) 401Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dickens P, König P, Dippel T, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 32 (1961) 369Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Dickens P, König P, Dippel T, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 34 (1963) 243Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Takahashi T, J Spect Soc Japan 12 (1964) 224Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kipsch D, Neue Hütte 10 (1965) 240Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Bruch J, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 215 (1966) 332Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Picard K, Neue Hütte 11 (1966) 176Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Herberg G, Höller P, Köster-Pflugmacher A, Spectrochim Acta 23B (1967/68) 101, 363Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Höller P, Spectrochim Acta 23B (1967/68) 1Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Mayer H, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 40 (1969) 631Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Koch KH, Ohls K, Becker G, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 41 (1970) 25Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Slickers K, Spectrochim Acta 33B (1978) 839Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Slickers K, Die automatische Emissions-Spektralanalyse. Brühische Universitätsdruckerei, Lahn-Gießen (1977)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Grimm W, Spectrochim Acta 23B (1968) 443Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    ElAlfy S, Laqua K, Massmann H, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 263 (1973) 1Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mellichamp JW, Anal Chem 37 (1965) 1211Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ling CS, Sacks RD, Anal Chem 47 (1975) 2074Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Duchane DV, Sacks RD, Anal Chem 50 (1978) 1765Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Goldberg J, Sacks R, Anal Chem 54 (1982) 2179Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Churchill JR, Anal Chem 16 (1944) 653Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Majkowski RF, Schreiber TP, Spectrochim Acta 16 (1960) 1200Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Frick C, Lauer KF, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 27 (1956) 557Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Eckhard S, Koch W, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 28 (1957) 731Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Eckhard S, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 29 (1958) 89Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wang MS, Appl Spectrosc 24 (1970) 60Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Dabeka RW, Tymchuk P, Russell DS, Appl Spectrosc 34 (1980) 43Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Feldman C, Anal Chem 21 (1949) 1041Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Suhr NH, Ingamells CO, Anal Chem 38 (1966) 730Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Eardley RP, Clarke HS Appl Spectrosc 19 (1965) 186Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Joensuu OI, Suhr NH, Appl Spectrosc 16 (1962) 101Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Webber GR, Jellema JU, Appl Spectrosc 16 (1962) 133Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Thompson G, Bankston DC, Spectrochim Acta 24B (1969) 335Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Avni R, Harel A, Brenner IB, Appl Spectrosc 26 (1972) 641Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Timperley MH, Spectrochim Acta 29B (1974) 95Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Watson AE, Russell GM, Spectrochim Acta 33B (1978) 143Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Maessen FJMJ, Elgersma JW, Spectrochim Acta 31B (1976) 179Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Reckziegel M, Staats G, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 35 (1964) 633Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Reckziegel M, Staats G, Brück H, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 206 (1964) 113Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Reckziegel M, Staats G, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 211 (1965) 173Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Staats G, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 219 (1966) 250Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bramhall PS, Scholes PH, Analyst 94 (1969) 945Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Grove EL, Applied atomic spectroscopy. Plenum, New York (1978)Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Straughan BP, Walker S, Spectroscopy. Chapman and Hall, London (1976)Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Barnes RM, Emission spectroscopy. Halsted, Wiley, New York (1976)Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Winefordner JT, Trace analysis. Spectroscopic methods for elements. Wiley, New York (1976)Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Török T, Mika J, Gegus E, Emission spectrochemical analysis. Hilger, Bristol (1978)Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Schrenk WG, Analytical atomic spectroscopy. Plenum, New York (1975)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Mannkopf G, Friede G, Grundlagen und Methoden der chemischen Emissionsspektralanalyse. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim (1975)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Robinson JW, The handbook of spectroscopy. CRC Press, Cleveland (1974)Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Slavin M, Emission spectrochemical analysis. Wiley, New York (1971)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    May L, Spectroscopic tricks. Plenum, New York (1974)Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    May L, Spectroscopic tricks. Plenum, New York (1971)Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    May L, Spectroscopic tricks. Hilger, London (1968)Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Boumans PWJM, Theory of spectrochemical excitation. Hilger, London (1966)Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Ahrens LH, Taylor SR, Spectrochemical analysis. Pergamon, London (1961)Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Koch OG, Koch-Dedic GA, Handbuch der Spurenanalyse. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York (1974)Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Reeves RD, Brooks RR, Trace element analysis of geological materials. Wiley, New York (1978)Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Johnson WM, Maxwell JA, Rock and mineral analysis. Wiley, New York (1981)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Cresser MS, Sharp BL, Annual reports on analytical atomic spectroscopy, Vol 10. The Royal Society of Chemistry, London (1981)Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Dawson JB, Sharp BL, Annual reports on analytical atomic spectroscopy, Vol 9. The Royal Society of Chemistry, London (1980)Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Dawson JB, Sharp BL, Annual reports on analytical atomic spectroscopy, Vol 8. The Royal Society of Chemistry, London (1979)Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hofstader RA, Milner OI, Runnels JH, Analysis of petroleum for trace metals. American Chemical Society, Washington (1976)Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Harrison GR, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Wavelength Tables. Wiley, New York (1960);Google Scholar
  105. 104a.
    Harrison GR, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Wavelength Tables. MIT Press, Cambridge (1969)Google Scholar
  106. 105.
    Meggers WF, Corliss CH, Scribner BF, Tables of spectral lines. NBS Monograph No. 145. US Dept of Commerce, Washington (1975)Google Scholar
  107. 106.
    Saidel AN, Prokofjew WK, Raiski SM, Spektraltabellen, VEB Verl Technik, Berlin (1955)Google Scholar
  108. 107.
    Zaidel AN, Prokof’ev VK, Raiskii SM, Slavnyi VA, Shreider EY, Tables of spectral lines. Plenum, New York (1970)Google Scholar
  109. 108.
    Kuba J, Kučera L, Plzák F, Dvořák M, Mráz J, Koinzidenztabellen der Atomspektroskopie. Verlag der Tschechoslowakischen Adademie der Wissenschaften, Prag (1964)Google Scholar
  110. 109.
    Kelly RL, A table of emission lines in the vaccum ultra-violet for all elements (6 Angstroms to 2000 Angstroms). UCRL 5612, University of California Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, Livermore (1959)Google Scholar
  111. 110.
    Phleps III FM, M.I.T. Wavelength tables, Vol 2: Wavelength by elements. MIT Press, Cambridge (1982)Google Scholar
  112. 111.
    Meggers WF, Anal Chem 28 (1956) 616Google Scholar
  113. 112.
    Scribner BF, Anal Chem 30 (1958) 596;Google Scholar
  114. 112a.
    Scribner BF, Anal Chem 32 (1960) 229R;Google Scholar
  115. 112b.
    Scribner BF, Anal Chem 34 (1962) 200RGoogle Scholar
  116. 113.
    Scribner BF, Margoshes M, Anal Chem 36 (1964) 329RGoogle Scholar
  117. 114.
    Margoshes M, Scribner BF, Anal Chem 38 (1966) 297R;Google Scholar
  118. 114a.
    Margoshes M, Scribner BF, Anal Chem 40 (1968) 223RGoogle Scholar
  119. 115.
    Margoshes M, Scribner BF, Anal Chem 42 (1970) 398RGoogle Scholar
  120. 116.
    Barnes RM, Anal Chem 44 (1972) 122R;Google Scholar
  121. 116a.
    Barnes RM, Anal Chem 46 (1974) 150R;Google Scholar
  122. 116b.
    Barnes RM, Anal Chem 48 (1976) 106R;Google Scholar
  123. 116c.
    Barnes RM, Anal Chem 50 (1978) 100RGoogle Scholar
  124. 117.
    Boyko WJ, Keliher PN, Malloy JM, Anal Chem 52 (1980) 53RGoogle Scholar
  125. 118.
    Boyko WJ, Keliher PN, Patterson III JM, Anal Chem 54 (1982) 188RGoogle Scholar
  126. 119.
    Kopp JF, Kroner RC, Appl Spectrosc 19 (1965) 155Google Scholar
  127. 120.
    Pohl FA, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 139 (1953) 241Google Scholar
  128. 121.
    Silvey WD, Brennan R, Anal Chem 34 (1962) 784Google Scholar
  129. 122.
    LeRoy VM, Lincoln AJ, Anal Chem 46 (1974) 369Google Scholar
  130. 123.
    Cohen SP, Wiener DA, Appl Spectrosc 8 (1954) 23Google Scholar
  131. 124.
    Rosza JT, Golland JD, Appl Spectrosc 7 (1953) 125Google Scholar
  132. 125.
    Bedrosian AJ, Skogerboe RK, Morrison GH, Anal Chem 40 (1968) 854Google Scholar
  133. 126.
    Morrison GH, Skogerboe RK, Bedrosian AJ, Rothenberg AM, Appl Spectrosc 23 (1969) 349Google Scholar
  134. 127.
    Thompson JW, Analyst 86 (1961) 829Google Scholar
  135. 128.
    Braun EH, Anal Chem 30 (1958) 1076Google Scholar
  136. 129.
    Voth JL, Anal Chem 35 (1963) 1957Google Scholar
  137. 130.
    Ng SK, Lai PT, Appl Spectrosc 26 (1972) 369Google Scholar
  138. 131.
    Niedermeier W, Griggs JH, Johnson RS, Appl Spectrosc 25 (1971) 53Google Scholar
  139. 132.
    Webb J, Niedermeier W, Griggs JH, James TN, Appl Spectrosc 27 (1973) 342Google Scholar
  140. 133.
    Chaplin MH, Dixon AR, Appl Spectrosc 28 (1974) 5Google Scholar
  141. 134.
    Tymchuk P, Mykytiuk A, Russell DS, Appl Spectrosc 22 (1968) 268Google Scholar
  142. 135.
    Forrest J, Finston HL, Appl Spectrosc 14 (1960) 127Google Scholar
  143. 136.
    Forrest J, Finston HL, Talanta 6 (1960) 71Google Scholar
  144. 137.
    Fornwalt DE, Healy MK, Appl Spectrosc 13 (1959) 38Google Scholar
  145. 138.
    Bangia TR, Dhawale BA, Kartha KNK, Joshi BD, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 308 (1981) 452Google Scholar
  146. 139.
    Joshi BD, Bangia TR, Dalvi AGS, Mikrochim Acta (1974) 829Google Scholar
  147. 140.
    Owens EB, Appl Spectrosc 16 (1962) 86Google Scholar
  148. 141.
    Venkatasubramanian R, Dixit RM, Saranathan TR, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 271 (1974) 357Google Scholar
  149. 142.
    Karanjikar NP, Saksena MD, Talanta 21 (1974) 652Google Scholar
  150. 143.
    Kamat MJ, Kaimal R, Saranathan TR, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 307 (1981) 19Google Scholar
  151. 144.
    Osumi Y, Kato A, Miyake Y, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 255 (1971) 103Google Scholar
  152. 145.
    Kamat MJ, Sugandhi V, Saranathan TR, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 302 (1980) 59Google Scholar
  153. 146.
    Niedermeier W, Griggs JH, Webb J, Appl Spectrosc 28 (1974) 1Google Scholar
  154. 147.
    Rokosz A, Strycharski P, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 313 (1982) 316Google Scholar
  155. 148.
    Tripković M, Todorović M, Vukanović V, Simić M, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 306 (1981) 362Google Scholar
  156. 149.
    Page AG, Godbole SV, Kulkarni MJ, Shelar SS, Joshi BD, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 297 (1979) 388Google Scholar
  157. 150.
    Day GT, Serin PA, Heykoop K, Anal Chem 40 (1968) 805Google Scholar
  158. 151.
    Ko R, Appl Spectrosc 32 (1978) 325Google Scholar
  159. 152.
    Zmbova B, Teofilovski Č, Talanta 20 (1973) 217Google Scholar
  160. 153.
    Flickinger LC, Polley EW, Galletta FA, Anal Chem 30 (1958) 502Google Scholar
  161. 154.
    Smith IL, Yeager E, Kaufman N, Hovorka F, Kinney TD, Appl Spectrosc 9 (1955) 167Google Scholar
  162. 155.
    Prince LA, Ellgren AJ, DeGlopper TJ, Appl Spectrosc 20 (1966) 372Google Scholar
  163. 156.
    Cummings JP, Hall RH, Plenzier RJ, Appl Spectrosc 25 (1971) 342Google Scholar
  164. 157.
    Stoll N, Wagner A, CNRM Met Rep 5 (1965) 73Google Scholar
  165. 158.
    Eckhard S, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 208 (1965) 241Google Scholar
  166. 159.
    Eckhard S, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 208 (1965) 401Google Scholar
  167. 160.
    Koch KH, Becker G, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 231 (1967) 173Google Scholar
  168. 161.
    Ohls K, Koch KH, Becker G, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 241 (1968) 155Google Scholar
  169. 162.
    Ohls K, Koch KH, Becker G, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 250 (1970) 369Google Scholar
  170. 163.
    Mayer H, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 249 (1970) 375Google Scholar
  171. 164.
    Koch OG, Anal Chim Acta 76 (1975) 371Google Scholar
  172. 165.
    Höller P, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 209 (1965) 259Google Scholar
  173. 166.
    Höller P, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 37 (1966) 483Google Scholar
  174. 167.
    Kemp N, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 240 (1968) 303Google Scholar
  175. 168.
    Fahlbusch WA, Appl Spectrosc 17 (1963) 72Google Scholar
  176. 169.
    Brachfeld B, Appl Spectrosc 27 (1973) 369Google Scholar
  177. 170.
    Schmitz L, Loose W, Koch KH, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 266 (1973) 186Google Scholar
  178. 171.
    Schmitz L, Loose W, Koch KH, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 276 (1975) 111Google Scholar
  179. 172.
    Neeb KH, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 221 (1966) 200Google Scholar
  180. 173.
    Landergren S, Muld W, Mikrochim Acta (1955) 245Google Scholar
  181. 174.
    Cruft EF, Husler J, Anal Chem 41 (1969) 175Google Scholar
  182. 175.
    Pohl FA, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 139 (1953) 423Google Scholar
  183. 176.
    Scharrer K, Judel GK, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 156 (1957) 340Google Scholar
  184. 177.
    Koch OG, Mikrochim Acta (1958) 92Google Scholar
  185. 178.
    Mack DL, Analyst 88 (1963) 481Google Scholar
  186. 179.
    Cordis V, Sigartau G, Pop I, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 279 (1976) 355Google Scholar
  187. 180.
    Oldfield JH, Bridge EP, Analyst 86 (1961) 267Google Scholar
  188. 181.
    Oldfield JH, Mack DL, Analyst 87 (1962) 778Google Scholar
  189. 182.
    Wang MS, Appl Spectrosc 26 (1972) 364Google Scholar
  190. 183.
    Morris JM, Pink FX, ASTM Spec Tech Publ No 221 (1958), 39Google Scholar
  191. 184.
    Morris WF, Worden EF, Appl Sprectrosc 25 (1971) 305Google Scholar
  192. 185.
    Ko R, Anderson P, Anal Chem 41 (1969) 177Google Scholar
  193. 186.
    Rupp RL, Klecak GL, Morrison GH, Anal Chem 32 (1960) 931Google Scholar
  194. 187.
    Koch OG, Mikrochim Acta (1958) 402Google Scholar
  195. 188.
    Joshi BD, Bangia TR, Dalvi AGI, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 260 (1972) 107Google Scholar
  196. 189.
    Sethumadhavan A, Murty PS, Mikrochim Acta (1982 I) 213Google Scholar
  197. 190.
    Laib RD, Appl Spectrosc 17 (1963) 160Google Scholar
  198. 191.
    Koch OG, Mikrochim Acta (1958) 151Google Scholar
  199. 192.
    Dhumwald RK, Joshi MV, Patwardhan AB, Anal Chim Acta 42 (1968) 334Google Scholar
  200. 193.
    Koch OG, Mikrochim Acta (1958) 347Google Scholar
  201. 194.
    Bellary VP, Anantharama Sarma Y, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 302 (1980) 278Google Scholar
  202. 195.
    Scharrer K, Judel GK, Z Pflanzenernähr Düngg Bodenkunde 73 (1956) 107Google Scholar
  203. 196.
    Scharrer K, Judel GK, Spectrochim Acta 11 (1957) 377Google Scholar
  204. 197.
    Pohl FA, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 141 (1954) 81Google Scholar
  205. 198.
    Oldfield JH, Bridge EP, Analyst 85 (1960) 97Google Scholar
  206. 199.
    Kershner NA, Joy EF, Barnard Jr AJ, Appl Spectrosc 25 (1971) 542Google Scholar
  207. 200.
    Farquhar MC, Hill JA, English MM, Anal Chem 38 (1966) 208Google Scholar
  208. 201.
    Morrison GH, Rupp RL, Klecak GL, Anal Chem 32 (1960) 933Google Scholar
  209. 202.
    Meyer S, Koch OG, Spectrochim Acta 15 (1959) 549Google Scholar
  210. 203.
    Meyer S, Koch OG, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 31 (1960) 651Google Scholar
  211. 204.
    Meyer S, Koch OG, Spectrochim Acta 12 (1958) 278Google Scholar
  212. 205.
    Page AG, Godbole SV, Deshkar S, Babu Y, Jishi BD, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 287 (1977) 304Google Scholar
  213. 206.
    Birks FF, Weidrick GJ, Thomas AM, Analyst 89 (1964) 36Google Scholar
  214. 207.
    Sugimae A, Appl Spectrosc 28 (1974) 458Google Scholar
  215. 208.
    Sugimae A, Anal Chem 46 (1974) 1123Google Scholar
  216. 209.
    Sugimae A, Anal Chim Acta 78 (1975) 107Google Scholar
  217. 210.
    Sugimae A, Anal Chem 47 (1975) 1840Google Scholar
  218. 211.
    Scott DR, Loseke WA, Holboke LE, Thompson RJ, Appl Spectrosc 30 (1976) 392Google Scholar
  219. 212.
    Sugimae A, Skogerboe RK, Anal Chim Acta 97 (1978) 1Google Scholar
  220. 213.
    Imai S, Kusaka Y, Tsuji H, Hishiya Y, Anal Chim Acta 108 (1979) 103Google Scholar
  221. 214.
    Farmer CV, Spectrochim Acta 4 (1950) 224Google Scholar
  222. 215.
    Mitchell RL, Scott RO, Appl Spectrosc 11 (1957) 6Google Scholar
  223. 216.
    O’Connor RT, Heinzelman DC, Anal Chem 24 (1952) 1667Google Scholar
  224. 217.
    Zeeman PB, Coetzer FJ, Appl Spectrosc 15 (1961) 161Google Scholar
  225. 218.
    Koch OG, Dedic GA, Zbl Bakteriol II, 110 (1957) 178Google Scholar
  226. 219.
    Wolff H, Biochem Z 318 (1948) 521Google Scholar
  227. 220.
    Chandola LC, Microchem J 28 (1983) 87Google Scholar
  228. 221.
    Koch OG, Dedic GA, Chemist-Analyst 46 (1957) 88Google Scholar
  229. 222.
    Lehmden DJ von, Jungers RH, Lee Jr RE, Anal Chem 46 (1974) 239Google Scholar
  230. 223.
    Radmacher W, Hessling H, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 167 (1959) 172Google Scholar
  231. 224.
    Prävceva C, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 239 (1968) 303Google Scholar
  232. 225.
    Prävceva C, Ninow E, Ganev P, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 239 (1968) 307Google Scholar
  233. 226.
    Pflugmacher A, Schäfer K, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 185 (1962) 419Google Scholar
  234. 227.
    Morello B, DeGregorio P, Savastano G, Appl Spectrosc 28 (1974) 14Google Scholar
  235. 228.
    Graue G, Lückerath W, Marotz R, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 200 (1964) 401Google Scholar
  236. 229.
    Harvey CO, Murray KLH, Analyst 83 (1958) 136Google Scholar
  237. 230.
    Spackova A, Al-Bassam K, Mirza N, Ibrahim R, Salman G, Spectrochim Acta 37B (1982) 745Google Scholar
  238. 231.
    Schüller H, Mikrochim Acta (1956) 393Google Scholar
  239. 232.
    Hanna ZG, Ibrahim JM, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 208 (1965) 276Google Scholar
  240. 233.
    Goleb JA, Faris JP, Meng BH, Appl Spectrosc 16 (1962) 9Google Scholar
  241. 234.
    McClure JH, Kitson RE, Anal Chem 25 (1953) 867Google Scholar
  242. 235.
    Avni R, Spectrochim Acta 24B (1969) 133Google Scholar
  243. 236.
    Avni R, Spectrochim Acta 23B (1968) 619Google Scholar
  244. 237.
    Dixon K, Analyst 83 (1958) 362Google Scholar
  245. 238.
    O’Neil RL, Suhr NH, Appl Spectrosc 14 (1960) 45Google Scholar
  246. 239.
    Hyman HM, Weisberger S, Appl Spectrosc 9 (1955) 98Google Scholar
  247. 240.
    Matocha CK, Petit J, Appl Spectrosc 22 (1968) 562Google Scholar
  248. 241.
    Joshi BD, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 266 (1973) 125Google Scholar
  249. 242.
    Zmbova B, Marinkovic M, Talanta 20 (1973) 647Google Scholar
  250. 243.
    Lader S, Appl Spectrosc 12 (1958) 85Google Scholar
  251. 244.
    Carpenter L, Lewis RW, Hazen KA, Appl Spectrosc 20 (1966) 44Google Scholar
  252. 245.
    Forssén HG, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 288 (1977) 44Google Scholar
  253. 246.
    Weisberger S, Pristera F, Reese EF, Appl Spectrosc 9 (1955) 19Google Scholar
  254. 247.
    Gordon Jr NE, Jacobs RM, Rickel MC, Anal Chem 25 (1953) 1031Google Scholar
  255. 248.
    Hullings RS, Appl Spectrosc 9 (1955) 26Google Scholar
  256. 249.
    Pagliasotti JP, Anal Chem 28 (1956) 1774Google Scholar
  257. 250.
    Fry DL, Schreiber TP, Appl Spectrosc 11 (1957) 1Google Scholar
  258. 251.
    Waggoner CA, Appl Spectrosc 13 (1959) 31Google Scholar
  259. 252.
    Woodruff JF, Thomas AH, Appl Spectrosc 16 (1962) 29Google Scholar
  260. 253.
    Pahl HR, Appl Spectrosc 26 (1972) 453Google Scholar
  261. 254.
    Murty PS, Geetha NS, Marathe SM, Fresenius Z Anal Chem 314 (1983) 152Google Scholar
  262. 255.
    Mansell RE, Appl Spectrosc 15 (1961) 70Google Scholar
  263. 256.
    Marlow Jr FS, Appl Spectrosc 19 (1965) 35Google Scholar
  264. 257.
    Mohan PV, Schreiber TP, Appl Spectrosc 12 (1958) 6Google Scholar
  265. 258.
    Münx M, Talanta 24 (1977) 425Google Scholar
  266. 259.
    Nohe JD, Appl Spectrosc 21 (1967) 364Google Scholar
  267. 260.
    Peterson MJ, Anal Chem 22 (1950) 1398Google Scholar
  268. 261.
    Wagner F, Arch Eisenhüttenwes 39 (1968) 759Google Scholar
  269. 262.
    Kántor T, Erdey L, Szabó-Ákos Z, Talanta 17 (1970) 1199Google Scholar
  270. 263.
    Brody K, Paris JF, Buchanan RF, Anal Chem 30 (1958) 1909Google Scholar
  271. 264.
    Wheat JA, Appl Spectrosc 16 (1962) 108Google Scholar
  272. 265.
    Avni R, Boukobza A, Daniel B, Appl Spectrosc 24 (1970) 406Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Othmar G. Koch
    • 1
  • W. Fresenius
    • 2
  1. 1.MeringDeutschland
  2. 2.Institut -FreseniusTaunussteinDeutschland

Personalised recommendations