Metals: General Orientation

  • Reinier L. Zielhuis
  • Anne Stijkel
  • Maarten M. Verberk
  • Maartje van de Poel-Bot
Part of the International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health Supplement book series (OCCUPATIONAL)

Abstract

Occupational exposure to metals is widespread. Intake is predominantly by inhalation, but sometimes, to a relatively large extent, by secondary and primary ingestion as well. Workers are also exposed away from their work through food, water, beverages, ambient air, and smoking. Biological monitoring is often of great importance, because it may make it possible to estimate total exposure.

Keywords

Nickel Mercury Chromium Cadmium Manganese 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reinier L. Zielhuis
    • 1
  • Anne Stijkel
    • 1
  • Maarten M. Verberk
    • 1
  • Maartje van de Poel-Bot
    • 1
  1. 1.Coronel Laboratorium, Faculteit der GeneeskundeUniversiteit van AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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