Irrigation Management and Field Salt Balance

  • J. D. Oster
  • J. van Schilfgaarde
  • D. Russo
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 51)


Crop water requirement and irrigation water quality are two primary parameters that have to be considered in order to ensure proper water management for salinity control. Correct irrigation restores the soil water deficit and avoids the application of a wasteful and potentially harmful excess. Some excess water (irrigation plus rainfall) is needed to control soil salinity. Soluble salts contained in irrigation water are concentrated in the soil solution as a result of soil evaporation and plant transpiration. When more water is applied than is used during a crop season and adequate drainage exists, net water movement is downward and salts are leached from the root zone.


Water Table Irrigation Water Soil Salinity Root Zone Salinity Control 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References to Chapter 6

  1. Amoozegar-Fard A, Nielsen DR, Warrick AW (1982) Soil solute concentration distribution for spatially varying pore water velocities and apparent diffusion coefficients. Soil Sci Soc Am J 46: 3–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ayers RS, Tanji KK (1981) Agronomic aspects of crop irrigation with waste water. Proc Spec Conf, Water Forum, 81.1: 578–586Google Scholar
  3. Biggar JW, Nielsen DR (1976) Spatial variability of the leaching characteristics of a field soil. Water Resour Res 12: 78–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boumans JH (1979) Drainage calculation in stratified soils using the anisotropic soil model to simulate conductivity conditions. Proc Int Drain Worksh, ILRI Publ 25. Wageningen, pp 108–123Google Scholar
  5. Breaster C (1973) Moisture variation at the soil surface and the advance of the wetting front during infiltration at constant flux. Water Resour Res 9: 687–694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bresler E (1973) Simultaneous transport of solutes and water under transient unsaturated flow conditions. Water Resour Res 9: 975–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bresler E, Dagan G (1979) Solute dispersion in unsaturated heterogeneous soil at field scale. II. Applications. Soil Sci Soc Am J 13: 467–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bresler E, Dagan G (1981) Convective and pore scale disperative solute transport in unsaturated heterogeneous field. Water Resour Res 17: 1683–1693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bresler E, McNeal BL, Carter DL (1982) Saline and sodic soils: principles - dynamics - modeling. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chang AC, Skaggs RW, Hermsmeier LF, Johnston WR (1983) Evaluation of a water management model for irrigated agriculture. Trans ASAE (in press)Google Scholar
  11. Chapman HD (1966) Diagnostic criteria for plants and soils. Div Agric Sci, Univ CalifGoogle Scholar
  12. Colding LA (1972) Om lovene for vandets bevaegelse i jorden. Danske Vidensk Selsk Skr 5. Raekke, Nat V Og Math Afd 9B: 563–621Google Scholar
  13. Dagan G, Bresler E (1979) Solute transport in unsaturated heterogeneous soil at field scale. I. Theory. Soil Sci Soc Am J 43: 461–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Delhomme JP (1978) Kriging in the hydrosciences. Adv Water Resour 1: 251–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Delhomme JP (1979) Spatial variability and uncertainty in ground water flow parameters. A geostatistical approach. Water Resour Res 15: 269–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. De Smedt F, Wierenga PJ (1978) Approximate analytical solution for solute flow during infiltration and redistribution. Soil Sci Soc Am J 42: 407–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. De Wiest RJM (1965) History of Dupuit-Forchheimer assumptions on groundwater hydraulics. Soc Agric Eng Trans 8(4): 508–516, 519Google Scholar
  18. Dieleman PJ, Trafford BD (1976) Drainage testing. Irrig Drain Pap 28. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  19. Doering EJ, Benz LC, Reichman GT (1982) Shallow-water-table concept for drainage design in semiarid and sub-humid regions. Proc 4 th Nat Drain Symp. Am Soc Agric Eng, pp 34–41Google Scholar
  20. Dumm LD, Winger RJ (1964) Subsurface drainage system design for irrigated area using transient-flow concept. Am Soc Agric Eng Trans 7 (2): 147–151Google Scholar
  21. Durnford DS, Podmore TH, Richardson EV (1982) Drainage: An incremental net benefit approach for optimal design. Proc 4 th Nat Drain Symp. Am Soc Agric Eng, pp 42–49Google Scholar
  22. Dutt GR, Terkeltoub RW, Rauschkolb RS (1972) Prediction of gypsum and leaching requirements for sodium-affected soils. Soil Sci 114: 93–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Francois LE (1981) Alfalfa management under saline conditions with zero leaching. Agron J 73: 1042–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Freeze RA (1975) A stochastic conceptual analysis of one-dimensional ground water flow in non-uniform heterogeneous media. Water Resour Res 11: 725–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gelhar LW, Gutjahr AL; Naff RL (1979) Stochastic analysis of macrodispersion in a stratified aquifier. Water Resour Res 15: 1387–1397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hoffman GJ, van Genuchten MT (1982) Efficient water management for salinity control. In: Taylor HM, Jordan W, Sinclair T (eds) Efficient water use in crop production. Agron Soc MonogrGoogle Scholar
  27. Hooghoudt SB (1940) Bijdragen tot de kennis van eenige natuurkundige grootheden van den grond, 7. Algemeene beschouwing van het probleem van de detail ontwatering en de infiltratie door middel van parallel loopende drains, greppels, slooten en kanalen. Versl Landbouwkd Onderz 45: 515–707Google Scholar
  28. Journel AG, Huijbregts CJ (1978) Mining geostatistics. Academic Press, London New YorkGoogle Scholar
  29. Jury WA (1984) field scale water and solute transport through unsaturated soil. In: Soil salinity under irrigation - processes and management conference. Bet Dagan, Israel, March 25–29. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  30. Jury WA, Fluhler H, Stolzy LH (1977) Influence of soil properties, leaching fraction and plant water uptake on solute concentration distribution. Water Resour Res 13: 645–650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Jury WA, Frenkel H, Stolzy LH (1978) Transient changes in the soil water system from irrigation with sahne water. I. Theory. Soil Sci Soc Am J 42: 579–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kincaid DC, Kruse EG, Duke HR, Champion DF (1979) Computed evapotranspiration to estimate leaching fractions. Trans ASAE 22 (2): 310–319Google Scholar
  33. Kirkham D, Prunty L (1977) Upslope recharge, downslope waterlogging and interceptor drains. Proc 3 rd Nat Drain Symp. Am Soc Agric Eng, pp 40–50, 54Google Scholar
  34. Kirkham D, Toksöz S, van der Ploeg RR (1974) Steady flow to drains and wells. In: van Schilfgaarde J (ed) Drainage for agriculture. Agronomy 17: 203–244Google Scholar
  35. Krayenhoff van de Leur DA (1958) A study of nonsteady groundwater flow with special reference to a reservoir-coefficient. Ingenieur 70B: 87–94Google Scholar
  36. Kruse EG (1977) Final Report - Alleviation of slat load in irrigation water return flow of the upper Colorado River Basin. Bur Reclam Contr 14-06-400-5942Google Scholar
  37. Lagace R, Skaggs RW, Parsons JE (1982) Predicting water table drawdown for two-dimensional drainage. Proc 4 th Nat Drain Symp. Am Soc Agric Eng, pp 6–14Google Scholar
  38. Longenecker DE, Lyerly PJ (1974) Control of soluble salts in farming and gardening. Tex Agric Exp Stat Bull B-876: 8Google Scholar
  39. Lumley JL, Panofsky A (1964) The structure of atmospheric turbulence. John Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  40. Maas EV, Hoffman GJ (1979) Crop salt tolerance - current assessment. J Irrig Drain ASCE 103: 115–134Google Scholar
  41. Matheron G (1973) The intrinsic random functions and their applications. Adv Appl Probab 5: 438–468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. McWhorter DB, Duke HR (1976) Transient drainage with nonlinearity and capillarity. J Irrig Drain ASCE 102 (IR2): 193–204Google Scholar
  43. Nielsen DR, Biggar JW, Erh KT (1973) Spatial variability of field-measured soil water properties. Hilgardia 42: 215–259Google Scholar
  44. Oosterbaan OJ (1982) Crop yield, soil salinity and water table depth in Pakistan. Annu Rep, Int Inst Land Reclam Improv, Wageningen, pp 50–54Google Scholar
  45. Oster JD (1982) Plant water uptake; or, how do plants integrate? Soil Water 52: 11–13Google Scholar
  46. Oster JD, Rhoades JD (1975) Calculated drainage water compositions and salt burdens resulting from irrigation with river waters in the western Unites States. J Environ Qual 4: 73–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Oster JD, Rhoades JD (1977) Various indices for evaluating the effective salinity and sodicity of irrigation waters. Proc Int Salinity Conf. Tex Techn Univ, Aug 1976, Lubbock, pp 1–14Google Scholar
  48. Oster JD, Schroer FW (1979) Infiltration as influenced by irrigation water quality. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 43: 444–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Oster JD, Wood JD (1977) Hydro-salinity models: Sensitivity to input variables. Proc Nat Conf Irrig Return Flow Qual Manag, May 1977, Fort Collins, CO, pp 253–259Google Scholar
  50. Oster JD, Willardson LS, van Schilfgaarde J, Goertzen JO (1976) Irrigation control using tensiometers and salinity sensors. Trans ASAE 19 (2): 294–298Google Scholar
  51. Peck AJ (1978) Note on the role of a shallow aquifer in dryland salinity. Aust J Soil Res 16: 237–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Raats PAC (1974) Steady flows of water and salt in uniform soil profiles with plant roots. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 38: 717–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Raats PAC (1975) Distribution of salts in the root zone. J Hydrol 27: 237–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Raats PAC (1978) Convective transport of solutes by steady flows. I.General theory. II. Specific flow problems. Agric Water Manag 1 (3): 201–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Raats PAC (1981) Residence times of water and solutes within and below the root zone. Agric Water Manag 4: 63–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rhoades JD (1977) Potential for using saline agricultural drainage waters for irrigation. Proc Conf Water Manag Irrig Drain, July 1977 ASCE, Reno, pp 85–116Google Scholar
  57. Rhoades JD (1979) Monitoring soil salinity: A review of methods. In: Everett LG, Schmidt KD (eds) Establishment of water quality monitoring programs. Am Water Resour Assoc, St Anthony Falls Hydraul Lab, Minneapolis, pp 150–165Google Scholar
  58. Rhoades JD (1980) Determining leaching fraction from field measurments of soil electrical conductivity. Agric Water Manag 3: 205–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Rhoades JD (1982) Reclamation and management of salt affected soil after drainage. Proc 1 st Annu West Provine Conf. Rationalization of water and soil research and management, 29 Nov-2 Dec 1982, Lethbridge, Alberta, Can, p 123Google Scholar
  60. Rhoades JD, Corwin DL (1981) Determining soil electrical conductivity - depth relations using an inductive electromagnetic soil conductivity meter. Soil Sci Soc Am J 45: 255–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rhoades JD, Merrill SD (1976) Assessing the suitability of water for irrigation: Theoretical and empirical approaches. FAO Soil Bull 31: 69–109Google Scholar
  62. Rhoades JD, Oster JD, Ingvalson RD, Tucker JM, Clark M (1974) Minimizing the salt burdens of irrigation drainage waters. J Environ Qual 3: 311–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rhoades JD, Corwin DL, Hoffman GJ (1981) Scheduling and controlling irrigations from measurements of soil electrical conductivity. Proc ASAE Irrig Sched Conf, 14 Dec 1981, Chicago, pp 106–115Google Scholar
  64. Richards LA (1966) A salinity sensor of improved design. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 30: 333–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Robbins CW, Wagenet RJ, Jurinak JJ (1980) A combined salt transport chemical equilibrium model for calcareous and gypsiferous soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 44: 1191–1194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Russo D (1983) A geostatistical approach to the trickle irrigation design in hetergeneous soil. I. Theory. Water Resour Res 19: 632–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Russo D (1984) A geostatistical approach to the solute transport in heterogeneous fields and its applications to salinity management. Water Resour Res 20Google Scholar
  68. Russo D, Bresler E (1981 a) Soil hydraulic properties of stochastic processes. I. Analysis of field spatial variability. Soil Sci Soc Am J 45: 682–687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Russo D, Bresler E (1981 b) Effect of field variability in soil hydraulic properties on solutions of unsaturated water and salt flows. Soil Sci Soc Am J 45: 675–682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Russo D, Bresler E (1982) A univariate versus a multivariate parameter distribution in a stochastic conceptual analysis of unsaturated flow. Water Resour Res 18: 483–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Shainberg I, Letey J (1983) Response of soils to sodic and saline conditions. Hilgardia, vol 52, No 2Google Scholar
  72. Skaggs RW (1980) A water management model for artificially drained soils. Techn Bull 2527, NC Agric Res Serv, NC State Univ, RaleighGoogle Scholar
  73. Skaggs RW, Nassehzadeh-Tabrizi A (1982) Optimizing drainage system design for corn. Proc 4 th Nat Drain Symp, Am Soc Agric Eng, pp 50–61Google Scholar
  74. Strzepek KM, Wilson JL, Marks DH (1982) Planning and design of agricultural drainage under uncertainty: A dynamic multilevel approach. Ralph M Parsons, Mass Inst Technol, Cambridge, MA, Rep 281Google Scholar
  75. Suarez DL (1981) Relationship between pHc and SAR and an alternative method of estimating SAR of soil or drainage water. Soil Sci Soc Am J 45: 469–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Suarez DL, Rhoades JD (1982) The apparent solubility of calcium carbonate in soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 46: 716–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Talsma T (1963) The control of saline groundwater. Meded Landbouwhogesch, Wageningen 63 (10): 1–68Google Scholar
  78. Tanji KK (1969) Predicting specific conductance from electrolyte properties and ion association in some aqueous solutions. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 33: 887–890CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Tanji KK, Doneen LD, Ferry GV, Ayers RS (1972) Computer simulation analysis on reclamation of salt-affected soils in San Joaquin Valley, California. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 36: 127–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. US Salinity Laboratory Staff (1981) Minimizing salts in return flow through irrigation management. Final Report, interagency project EPA-1AG-D6-0370. Robert S Kerr, Environ Res Lab, USEPA, AdA, OKGoogle Scholar
  81. van Schilfgaarde J (ed) (1974) Drainage for agriculture. Agronomy 17, Am Soc Agrono, Madison WIGoogle Scholar
  82. van Schilfgaarde J (1976) Water management and salinity. FAO Soil Bull 31: 53–67Google Scholar
  83. van Schilfgaarde J, Rhoades JD (1983) Water quality in relation to irrigated agriculture. In: Engelbert EA (ed) Impacts of limited water for agriculture in the arid west. Univ Cal PressGoogle Scholar
  84. Zaslavsky D (1979) Drainage for salt leaching. Proc Int Drain Workshop, ILRI Publ 25, Wageningen, pp 664–685Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. D. Oster
  • J. van Schilfgaarde
  • D. Russo

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations