Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

  • J. Bertrams
  • M. P. Baur


Different autoimmune diseases often occur together in the same individual or family. Among the clustering autoimmune diseases, those mainly observed are insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes mellitus (IDDM), diseases of the thyrogastric group [autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD); Graves’ disease, Hashimoto’s disease], and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This clinical observation suggests a shared etiology due to genetic predisposition which is supported by the fact that these clustering autoimmune diseases are associated with the same HLA antigens: DR3 and DR4. For example, IDDM and ATD are significantly associated with DR3, while DR4-associated diseases include IEpM and RA.


Autoimmune Thyroid Disease Susceptibility Allele Family Data IDDM Patient Multiplex Family 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Bertrams
    • 1
  • M. P. Baur
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Laboratory MedicineSt. Elisabeth HospitalEssenFederal Republic of Germany
  2. 2.Biometrical DepartmentDiabetes Research InstituteDüsseldorfFederal Republic of Germany

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