Examinations of the Female Lower Urinary Tract and Ureter

  • G. Egender
  • H. Frommhold
  • A. Furtschegger
Conference paper
Part of the Radiology Today book series (RADIOL.TODAY, volume 3)


The conventional radiologic methods (excretory urogram, retrograde and anterograde pyelography, urethrocystography, miction cystogram) are undisputed as the standard methods of determining morphologic and functional, pathologic alterations in the urinary tract. They provide direct and indirect evidence on the location, form and extent of a lesion. However, in some respects — cause of an obstruction, displacement of the ureter, pathological changes in the area surrounding the urinary tract, alterations in the walls of the bladder — there are limits to the information that conventional radiology can supply, and it has been supplemented by other imaging methods.


Iliac Artery Bladder Tumor Bladder Wall Vesicoureteral Reflux Thickened Bladder Wall 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Egender
  • H. Frommhold
  • A. Furtschegger

There are no affiliations available

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