# The Role of Spherical Electromagnetic Waves as Information Carriers

• John S. Nicolis
Part of the Springer Series in Synergetics book series (SSSYN, volume 25)

## Abstract

Consider an elemental dipole consisting of two charges of opposite-signs -e, e separated by a time-varying distance l(t). The dipole is “elemental” if lmax ≪ λ, where λ is the wavelength of the imposed current. We intend to first calculate the energy radiated from this dipole in vacuo and then study the process in a dispersive and lossy medium. To do this, we first have to calculate, at a point R, θ, φ (Fig.3.1), the intensities of the produced electric and magnetic fields or, in more detail, the six components Er, Eθ, Eφ, Hr, Hθ, Hφ (in spherical coordinates). The source is characterized by coordinates r′(x′,y′,z′), t′ and the observation point by r(x,y,z), t, where
$$R = \sqrt {{{{\left( {x - x'} \right)}^2} + {{\left( {y - y'} \right)}^2} + {{\left( {z - z'} \right)}^2}}}$$
(3.1.1)
and
$$t' = t - \frac{R}{c}$$
(3.1.2)
, c being the velocity of light. The dipole moment equals
$$P\left( {t'} \right) = el\left( {t'} \right) = el\left( {t - \frac{R}{c}} \right)$$
(3.1.3)
.

### Keywords

Permeability Entropy Microwave Mercury Attenuation

## Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

### References

1. 3.1
J.A. Wheeler, R. Feynman: Rev. Mod. Phys. 17, 157 (1945)
2. 3.2
L. Brekhovskikh: Waves in Layered Media (Academic, New York 1960)Google Scholar
3. 3.3
D. Gabor: “Light and Information”, in Progress in Optics 1, 503 (North Holland, Amsterdam 1961)Google Scholar
4. 3.4
D. Gabor: Philos. Mag. 41, 1161 (1950)
5. 3.5
G.T. di Francia: Opt. Acta 2, 5 (1955)