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Die geschichtliche Entwicklung der Nierentransplantation

  • H. G. Hartmann

Zusammenfassung

Seit Jahrtausenden ist es ein Wunsch des Menschen, erkrankte und funktionslos gewordene Organe durch gesunde zu ersetzen und damit das menschliche Leben zu verlängern. Bereits in der Sanskritliteratur wird über Hautverpflanzungen des großen Chirurgen Susruta, der im 5. Jahrhundert vor Christus in Indien wirkte, berichtet. Die chinesischen Ärzte Pien Ch’iao und Hua T’O sollen schon 200 Jahre vor Christi Geburt Organübertragungen, u.a. Herztransplantationen vorgenommen haben. Bluttransfusionen zur Verjüngung sind uns aus der griechischen Mythologie beim alternden Anchises, aus der römischen Dichtung beim alten Jason und aus dem späten Mittelalter bei Papst Innozenz VIII bekannt. Durch die darstellende Kunst wurde die Legende der heiligen Zwillingsbrüder Kosmas und Damianus aus dem 5. Jahrhundert sehr verbreitet. Sie erzählt von der Verpflanzung eines Mohrenbeines bei einem abendländischen Küster. Nach der Überlieferung war der eine Zwillingsbruder Chirurg und der andere Mediziner, somit wohl das erste Beispiel einer „Teamarbeit“ in der Geschichte der Transplantation.

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

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  • H. G. Hartmann

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