Anaesthesia pp 198-202 | Cite as

Anesthesiology and Pharmacology at Wisconsin in the 1930s

  • John E. Steinhaus


The anesthesia residency program at the University of Wisconsin at Madison was established by Ralph Waters in 1927 and was soon recognized as a pioneer and leader in the development of the academic discipline of anesthesiology in that period. The program initiated by Dr. Waters established an exceptional model for residency training in anesthesiology and, in fact, laid the basis for the pattern of our residency training programs today. Morbidity and mortality conferences, journal clubs, and anesthesia records (both individual and collective) were features of this program [1]. Waters emphasized a broad program encompassing not only surgical and obstetric anesthesia, but also therapeutic and diagnostic blocks. In addition, analeptic and fluid therapy, artificial respiration, and the management of postoperative complications — the elements of intensive care — were included and stressed.


Journal Club Obstetric Anesthesia Anesthesia Record Artificial Respiration Sodium Ethyl 
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  1. 1.
    Waters RM (1932) Carbon dioxid absorption from anesthetic mixtures. Curr Res Anesth Analg 11: 97–110Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Waters RM (1924) Clinical scope and utility of carbon dioxid filtration in inhalation anesthesia. Curr Res Anesth Analg 3: 20–26Google Scholar
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    Gillespie NA (1943) The signs of anaesthesia. Curr Res Anesth Analg 22: 275–282Google Scholar
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    Leake CD (1964) Life among anesthetists: recollections of forty years. Anesthesiology 25: 428–435PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Loevenhart AS, Lorenz WF, Waters RM (1929) Cerebral stimulation. JAMA 92: 880–883CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Waters RM (1933) Use of carbon dioxide in anesthesia. JAMA 100: 1275–1276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Seevers MH, Meek WJ, Rovenstine EA, Stiles JA (1934) Study of cyclopropane anesthesia with especial reference to gas concentrations, respiratory and electrocardiographic changes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 51: 1–17Google Scholar
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    Seevers MH, Waters RM (1938) Pharmacology of the anesthetic gases. Physiol Rev 18: 447–479Google Scholar
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    Pratt TW, Tatum AL, Hathaway HR, Waters RM (1936) Sodium ethyl (1-methylbutyl) thiobarbiturate. Am J Surg 31: 464–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Seevers MH, Waters RM (1931) Circulatory changes during spinal anesthesia. Calif West Med 35: 169–173Google Scholar
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    Gillespie NA (1949) Ralph Milton Waters: a brief biography. Br J Anaesth 21: 197–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • John E. Steinhaus

There are no affiliations available

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