Anesthesiological and Operative Procedures with Potential Cerebral Effects

  • Ina Pichlmayr
  • Ulrich Lips
  • Helmut Künkel


In addition to anesthesia, further anesthesiological procedures accompanying surgery, the effects of surgery, and operations involving particular stress on the circulation, or phases of such operations, have consequences on the brain, which in the EEG can be determined by large alterations in cerebral function. As always, the reactions of the EEG are fairly stereotype, i.e., various injurious agents lead to similar EEG changes; knowledge of the clinical circumstances is, therefore, required for an evaluation of their significance. The following basic rule can thus be applied: Changes in the EEG in terms of a decelerating frequency and a leveling off of the voltage during the steady state of anesthesia under unchanging clinical conditions should always be taken as a warning signal of a deficient supply of oxygen to the brain. The cause must be detected and treated [13]. Changes toward a deceleration of frequency suggest a reduction in the level of anesthesia, either due to metabolism of the anesthetic or increased ssurgical pain stimuli — as long as other clinical parameters cannot explain such changes.


Cerebral Perfusion Pain Stimulus Extracorporal Circulation Paper Speed Arousal Reaction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


A. Textbooks and Summaries

  1. Brechner VL, Walter RD, Dillon JB (1962) Practical electroencephalography for the anesthesiologist. Thomas, SpringfieldGoogle Scholar
  2. Kugler J (1966) Elektroenzephalographie in Klinik und Praxis, 2nd edn. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  3. Sadove MS, Beck AD, Gibbs FA (1967) Electroencephalography for anesthesiologists and surgeons. Pitman, LondonGoogle Scholar

B. Papers

  1. 1.
    Bellville JW, Artusio JF Jr (1956) Effect of Arfonad® on anesthetic requirements during Cyclopropane anesthesia. Anesthesiology 17:347–352PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    van Bergen FH, Bucktey JJ, French LA, Dobkin AB, Brown JA (1954) Physiologic alterations associated with hexamethonium-induced hypotension. Anesthesiology 15:507–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Coons RE, Keats AS, Cooley DA (1959) Significance of electroencephalographic changes occurring during cardiopulmonary by-pass. Anesthesiology 20:804–810PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Davenport HT, Arfel G, Sanches FR (1959) The electroencephalogram in patients undergoing open heart surgery with heart-lung by-pass. Anesthesiology 20:674–684PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kavan EM, Brechner VL, Walter RD, Linde LM (1959) Electroencephalographic and electrocardiographic patterns during open heart operations with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Can Anaesth Soc J 6:356–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kubicki S, Just O (1957) Das hirnelektrische Bild bei extremer künstlicher Blutdrucksenkung. Anaesthesist 6:143–147PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kubicki S, Just O (1959) Das EEG im Verlauf von Herzoperationen mit Kreislaufunterbrechung. Anaesthesist 8:1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kubicki S, Trede M, Just O (1960) Die Bedeutung des EEG bei Herzoperationen in Hypothermie und bei extrakorporaler Zirkulation. Anaesthesist 9:119–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Martin JT, Faulconer H, Bickford RG (1959) Electroencephalography in anesthesiology. Anesthesiology 20:359–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Owen SG, Adams JE, Dawson BE, Lance EM, Sawers JL, Scott HW (1958) Observed central nervous system responses during experimental employment of various pump oxygenators. Surgery 44:240–254Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Trede M, Kubicki S, Just O (1959) Über EEG-Beobachtungen bei Herzoperationen mit extrakorporalem Kreislauf. Anaesthesist 8:76–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Walter RD, Kavan EM, Brechner VL, Maloney JV (1958) EEG-changes during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary by-pass. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 10:180Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wiemers K, Puppel H (1960) Praktische Bedeutung der EEG-Registrierung im Operationssaal, Kreislaufmessungen. Abstracts of the 2nd Freiburg Colloquium on circulatory measurement, vol 2, p 21–34Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ina Pichlmayr
    • 1
  • Ulrich Lips
    • 1
  • Helmut Künkel
    • 2
  1. 1.Zentrum für Anästhesiologie der Medizinischen Hochschule Hannover, Abt. IVKrankenhaus OststadtHannover 51Germany
  2. 2.Zentrum Neurologische Medizin, Abt. IIInstitut für Klinische Neurophysiologie und Experimentelle NeurologieHannover 61Germany

Personalised recommendations