The Design and Operation of Systems for Inhalation Exposure of Animals

  • R. T. Drew
Part of the Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology book series (HEP, volume 75)

Abstract

The need to assess health effects of airborne chemicals has caused the evolution of a variety of inhalation exposure systems. The development has proceeded in two directions: constructing chambers for immersion of the whole animal in a cloud of the test agent (whole body exposure systems), and building systems that limit the exposure to the head or nose or, in some cases, to a smaller portion of the respiratory tract (hereinafter referred to as limited exposure systems). This chapter will describe the design of both simple and complex whole body exposure systems, outline some of the standard operational procedures, including calibration, review the development of head and nose exposure systems, and describe some of the advantages and potential problems of operating limited exposure systems. The subject is restricted to exposure systems since methods for generation and characterization of particles and vapors are covered elsewhere in this book. Three books have appeared on this subject in the last 5 years (Drew 1978; Willeke 1980; Leong 1981), and for additional reviews the reader is referred to Fraser et al. (1959), Drew and Laskin (1973), Phalen (1976), and Lippmann (1980).

Keywords

Toxicity Welding Manifold Ozone Rubber 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alarie Y (1973) Sensory irritation of upper airways by airborne chemicals. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 24:279–297PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alarie Y (1981) Inhalation and toxic responses. Presented at Mid-America toxicology course. Klassen CD Director, Kansas City, MO, p 286Google Scholar
  3. Alarie YC, Anderson RC (1979) Toxicologic and acute lethal hazard evaluation of thermal decomposition products of synthetic and natural polymers. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 51:341–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bair WJ, Porter NS, Brown DP, Wehner AP (1969) Apparatus for direct inhalation of cigarette smoke by dogs. J Appl Physiol 26:847–850PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Barrow CS, Steinhagen WH (1982) Design, construction and operation of a simple inhalation exposure system. Fundam Appl Toxicol 2:33–37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barrow CS, Alarie Y, Warrick JC, Stock MF (1977) Comparison of the sensory irritation response in mice to chlorine and hydrogen chloride. Arch Environ Health 32:68–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bernstein DM, Drew RT (1980) The major parameters affecting temperature inside inhalation chambers. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 41:420–426PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Beven JL (1976) Inhalation toxicity studies on cigarette smoke. I. A versatile exposure system for inhalation toxicity studies on cigarette smoke. Toxicology 6:189–96PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blair D, Rees HJ (1975) The generation and administration of atmospheres containing dichlorvos for inhalation studies. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 36:385–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boecker BB, Aguilar FL, Mercer TT (1964) A canine inhalation exposure apparatus utilizing a whole body plethysmograph. Health Phys 10:1077–1089PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carpenter RL, Beethe RL (1978) Cones, cone angles, plenums, and manifolds. In: Drew RT (ed) Inhalation chamber technology. BNL Formal Report No 51318. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NYGoogle Scholar
  12. Cuddihy RG, Boecker BB (1973) Controlled administration of respiratory tract burdens of inhaled radioactive aerosols in beagle dogs. Toxicol Appl Pharmcol 25:597–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. DeWeese J, Dews PB (1979) A simple apparatus for exposing a mouse to different atmospheric environments. J Physiol (Lond) 296:6–7Google Scholar
  14. Dontenwill W (1970) Experimental investigations on the effect of cigarette smoke inhalation on small laboratory animals. In: Hanna MG Jr, Nettesheim P, Gilbert JR (eds) Inhalation carcinogenesis. Clearinghouse for federal scientific and technical information, NBS, US Deptartment of Commerce, Springfield, VAGoogle Scholar
  15. Dontenwill W, Reckzeh G, Stadler L (1967) Smoking machine for laboratory animals. Beitr Tabakforsch 4:45–49Google Scholar
  16. Draize JH, Nelson AA, Newburger SN, Kelley EA (1959) Inhalation toxicity studies of six types of aerosol hair sprays. Proc Sci Sect Toilet Goods Assoc 31:28–32Google Scholar
  17. Drew RT (ed) (1978) Proceedings of a workshop on inhalation chamber technology. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Formal Report No 51318, Upton, NYGoogle Scholar
  18. Drew RT (1981) Post symposium correspondence. In: Leong BKJ (ed) Inhalation. Toxicology and technology. Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, MI pp 299–307Google Scholar
  19. Drew RT (1982) Acute carbon monoxide toxicity in restrained vs unrestrained rats. Toxicologist 2:13Google Scholar
  20. Drew RT, Laskin S (1971) A new dust-generating system for inhalation studies. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 32:327–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Drew RT, Laskin S (1973) Environmental inhalation chambers. In: Gay WI (ed) Methods of animal experimentation, vol 4. Academic, New York, pp 1–41Google Scholar
  22. Eulenberg H (1865) Die Lehre von den schädlichen und giftigen Gasen. Vieweg, BraunschweigGoogle Scholar
  23. Ferin J, Leach JF (1980) Horizontal airflow inhalation exposure chamber. In: Willeke K (ed) Generation of aerosols and facilities for exposure experiments. Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, MI, pp 517–523Google Scholar
  24. Feron VJ, Kruysse A (1977) Effects of exposure to acrolein vapor in hamsters simultaneously treated with benzo(a)pynene or diethylnitrosamine. J Toxicol Environ Health 3:379–394PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fräser DA, Bales RE, Lippmann M, Stokinger HE (1959) Exposure chambers for research in animal inhalation. U. S. Public Health Service Publication no 57, US Government Printing Office, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  26. Griffis LC, Wolff RK, Beethe RL, Hobbs CH, McClellan RO (1981) Evaluation of a multitiered inhalation exposure chamber. Fundam Appl Toxicol 1:8–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hartroft PM, Gregory RO, Gardner RA, Tansuwan C, Freeman S (1977) A system for the long-term continuous exposure of laboratory animals to mixtures of air pollutants. J Environ Sci Health [A] 12(6):225–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hemenway DR, MacAskill SM (1979) Design development and test results of a horizontal laminar flow inhalation toxicology facility. Presented at the annual meeting of American Industrial Hygiene Association, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  29. Hemenway DR, Carpenter RL, Moss OR (1982) Inhalation toxicology chamber performance: a quantitative model. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 43:120–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Henderson DW (1952) Apparatus for study of airborne infection. J Hyg 50:53–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Henry CA, Lopez A, Dansie DR, Avery MD, Whitmire CE, Caton JE, Stokely JR, Guerin MR, Currin RD, Kouri RE (1981) The distribution and clearance of three cigarette smoke constituents, dotriacontane (DCT), nicotine (NIC) and benzo (a) pyrene (BP), after exposure of mice to whole cigarette smoke. Toxicologist 1:139Google Scholar
  32. Hewitt PJ, Hicks R, Lam HF (1978) The generation and characterization of welding fumes for toxicologieal investigations. Ann Occup Hyg 21:159–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hinners RG (1978) A system for automatically monitoring chamber temperature humidity and pollutant concentrations. In: Drew RT (ed) Proceedings of a workshop on inhalation chamber technology. Brookhaven National Laboratory Formal Report 51318, Upton, NY, pp 89–92Google Scholar
  34. Hinners RG, Burkart JK, Punte CL (1968) Animal inhalation exposure chambers. Arch Environ Health 16:194–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Hoben HJ, Ching S, Casarett LJ (1976) A study of the inhalation of pentachlonophenol by rats. II. A new inhalation exposure system for high doses in short exposure time. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 15:86–92PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hoffman D, Wynder EL (1970) Chamber development and aerosol dispersion. In: Hanna MG Jr, Nettesheim P, Gilbert JR (eds) Inhalation carcinogenesis. Clearing house for federal scientific and technical information NBS, US Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA, pp 173–191Google Scholar
  37. Holmberg RW, Moneyhun RW, Dalbey WE (1981) An exposure system for toxicological studies of concentrated oil aerosols. In: Leong BKJ (ed) Inhalation toxicology and technology. Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, MI, pp 53–62Google Scholar
  38. Homburger F, Bernfeld P, Bogdonoff P, Kelley T, Walton R (1967) Inhalation by small animals of fresh cigarette smoke generated by new smoking machine. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 10:382Google Scholar
  39. Kennedy GI Jr, Trochimowicz HJ (1982) Inhalation toxicology. In: Hayes AW (ed) Principles and methods of toxicology. Raven, New York, pp 185–208Google Scholar
  40. Kimmerle G (1977) Inhalation chamber for the study of potentially carcinogenic polycyclic hydrocarbons in small laboratory animals. IARC Sci Publ 16:49–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Kutzman RS, Meyer GJ, Wolf AP (1980) Biodistribution and excretion of (11C)benzaldehyde by the rat after two-minute inhalation exposure. Xenobiotica 10:281–288PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lapin CA, Burgess BA (1981) The effects of restraint on the acute toxicity of carbon monoxide. Toxicologist 1:138–139Google Scholar
  43. Laskin S, Kuschner M, Drew RT (1970) Studies in pulmonary carcinogenesis. In: Hanna MG Jr, Nettesheim P, Gilbert JR (eds) Inhalation carcinogenesis. Clearing house for federal scientific and technical information NBS, US Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA, pp 321–351Google Scholar
  44. Lawrence LJ; Dorough HW (1981) Retention and fate of inhaled hexachloropentadiene in the rat. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 26:663–668PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Leach LJ (1965) A laboratory test chamber for studying airborne materials, AEC Progr Rep UR629. University of Rochester, Rochester, NYGoogle Scholar
  46. Leach LJ, Spiegl CJ, Wilson RH, Sylvester GE, Lauterbach KE (1959) A multiple chamber exposure unit designed for chronic inhalation studies. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 20:13–22PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Leong BKJ (ed) (1981) Inhalation toxicology and technology. Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, MIGoogle Scholar
  48. Leong BKJ, Powell DJ, Pochyla GL, Lummis MG (1981) An active dispersion inhalation exposure chamber. In: Leong BKJ (ed) Inhalation toxicology and technology. Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, MI, pp 65–76Google Scholar
  49. Lippmann M (1980) Aerosol exposure methods. In: Willeke K (ed) Generation of aerosols and facilities for exposure experiments. Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, MI, pp 443–458Google Scholar
  50. MacEwen JD (1978) Nonconventional systems. In: Drew RT (ed) Proceedings of a workshop on inhalation chamber technology. BNL Formal Report 51318, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, pp 9–17Google Scholar
  51. MacFarland HN (1976) Respiratory Toxicology. In: Hayes WJ Jr (ed) Essays in toxicology, vol 7. Academic, New York, pp 121–154Google Scholar
  52. MacFarland HN (1981 a) A problem and a nonproblem in chamber inhalation studies. In: Leong BKJ (ed) Inhalation toxicology and technology. Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, MI, pp 11–18Google Scholar
  53. MacFarland HN (1981 b) Post-symposium correspondence. In: Leong BKJ (ed) Inhalation toxicology and technology. Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, MI, pp 299–307Google Scholar
  54. Mokler BU, Damon EG, Henderson TR, Carpenter RL, Benjamin SA, Rebar AH, Jones RK (1979) Inhalation toxicology studies of aerosolized products. LF 66 FDA No. PB-80–108509 National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VAGoogle Scholar
  55. Montogomery MR, Anderson RE, Mortenson GA (1976) A compact, versatile inhalation exposure chamber for small animal studies. Lab Anim Sci 26(3):461–464Google Scholar
  56. Moss OR (1978) A chamber providing uniform concentration of particulates for exposure of animals on tiers separated by catch pans. In: Drew RT (ed) Proceedings of a conference on inhalation chamber technology. BNL Formal Report 51318. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, pp 31–38Google Scholar
  57. Moss OR (1980) Exposure chamber. US Patent 4216741Google Scholar
  58. Moss OR, Decker JR, Cannon WC (1982) Aerosol mixing in an animal exposure chamber having three levels of caging with excreta pans. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 43:244–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nielsen GD, Alarie Y (1982) Sensory irritation, pulmonary irritation and respiratory stimulation by airborne benzene and alkylbenzenes: prediction of safe industrial exposure levels and correlation with their thermodynamic properties. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 65:459–477PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Oberdorster G, Meinhold SM, Marcello NL (1983) Reducing external body contamination from radioactive aerosols in nose only inhalation experiments in rats. Toxicologist 3:119Google Scholar
  61. Phalen RF (1976) Inhalation exposure of animals. Environ Health Perspect 16:17–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Pullinger DH, Crouch CN, Dare PR (1979) Inhalation toxicity studies with 2,3-butadiene-1 Atmosphere generation and control. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 40:789–795PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Raabe OG, Bennick JE, Light ME, Hobbs CH, Thomas RL, Tillery MI (1973) An improved apparatus for acute inhalation exposure of rodents to radioactive aerosols. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 26:264–273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Reid WB, Klok JR, Leong BKJ (1981) Hazard containment in an inhalation toxicology laboratory. In: Leong BKJ (ed) Inhalation toxicology and technology. Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, MI, pp 1–10Google Scholar
  65. Riley V (1981) Psychoneuroendocrine influences on immunocompetence and neoplasia. Science 212:1100–1109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Sachsse K, Zbinden K, Ullmann L (1980) Significance of mode of exposure in aerosol inhalation toxicity studies - Head only versus whole body exposure. Arch Toxicol (Suppl) 4:305–311Google Scholar
  67. Saito Y (1912) Experimental investigations on the quantitative absorption of dust by animals at accurately known concentrations of dust in air (in German). Arch Hyg 75:134–151Google Scholar
  68. Schreck RM, Chan TL, Soderholm SC (1981) Design operation and characterization of large volume exposure chambers. In: Leong BKJ (ed) Inhalation toxicology and technology. Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, MI, pp 29–52Google Scholar
  69. Silver SD (1946) Constant flow gassing chambers: principles influencing design and operation. J Lab Clin Med 31:1153–1161PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Smith DM, Ortiz LW, Archuleta RF, Spalding JF, Tillery MI, Ettinger HJ, Thomas RG (1980) A method for chronic “nose-only” exposures of laboratory animals to inhaled fibrous in aerosols. In: Leong BKJ (ed) Inhalation toxicology and technology. Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor, MI, pp 89–105Google Scholar
  71. Spiegl CJ, Leach LJ, Lauterbach KE, Wilson R, Laskin S (1953) Small chamber for studying test atmospheres. AMA Arch Ind Hyg Occup Med 8:286–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Spivak JL, Connor E (1977) A simple hypoxic chamber. J Lab Clin Med 89:1375–1378PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Stauffer HP, Riedwyl H (1977) Interaction and pH dependence of effects of nicotine and carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke inhalation experiments with rats. Agents Actions 7(5–6):579–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Stead FM, Dernehl CU, Nau CA (1944) A dust feed apparatus useful for exposure of small animals to small and fixed concentrations of dust. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 26:90–93Google Scholar
  75. Stokinger H, Baxter RC, Dygert HP, Labelle CW, Laskin S, Pozzani UC, Roberts E, Rothermel JJ, Rothstein A, Spiegl CJ, Sprague GF III, Wilson HB, Yaeger RC (1949) Toxicity following inhalation. In: Voegtlin C, Hodge HC (eds) Pharmacology and toxicology of uranium compounds, vol 3,1st edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, p 423Google Scholar
  76. Stuart BO, Willard DH, Howard EB (1970) Uranium mine air contaminants in dogs and hamsters. In: Hanna MG, Nettesheim P, Gilbert JR (eds) Inhalation carcinogenes, Conf-691001. Clearing house for federal scientific information, US Department of Commerce, Springfield, VA, pp 413–428Google Scholar
  77. Thiede FC, Hackney JD, Linn WS, Spier C, House W (1974) Animal atmosphere exposure chamber system using a modified tank respirator. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 35–6:370–373Google Scholar
  78. Thomas AA (1965) Low ambient pressure environments and toxicology. AMA Arch Environ Health 2:316–322Google Scholar
  79. Thomas RG, Lie R (1963) Procedures and equipment used in inhalation studies on small rodents. US Atomic Energy Commission Research and Development Report, Lovelace Foundation Report LF-11, Albuquerque, NMGoogle Scholar
  80. Von Oettingen WF, Hueper WC, Deichmann-Gruebler W, Wiley FH (1936) R-chlorobuta-, diene (chloroprene) its toxicity and pathology and the mechanism of its action. J Ind Hyg Toxicol 18:240–270Google Scholar
  81. Willeke K (ed) (1980) Generation of aerosols and facilities of exposure experiments. Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor, MIGoogle Scholar
  82. Wilson RH, Laskin S (1950) AEC Proj Rep UR-116. University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, p 80Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. T. Drew

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations